[Holopainen2013] "Multitrophic signalling in polluted atmospheres",
Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions
: Springer, pp. 285–314, 2013.
Volatile compounds emitted by plants in response to herbivory serve as important cues within and between trophic levels, and as cues over more than two trophic levels, such as in the attraction of enemies of herbivores. However, many of the volatiles elicited by herbivory are highly reactive with key atmospheric pollutants, implying that the signal is communicated over increasingly shorter distances with increasing pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere. Thus, polluted atmospheres can importantly alter the multitrophic interactions between trees, herbivores and herbivore enemies. This chapter highlights the alterations in multitrophic interactions and resulting modifications in plant fitness in polluted atmospheres.