"Characterization of biomass burning smoke from cooking fires, peat, crop residue and other fuels with high resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry",
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
, vol. 14, pp. 22163–22216, 2014.
<p>We deployed a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrom-eter (PTR-TOF-MS) to measure biomass burning emissions from peat, crop-residue, cooking fires, and many other fire types during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experi-ment (FLAME-4) laboratory campaign. A combination of gas standards calibrations and 5 composition sensitive, mass dependent calibration curves were applied to quantify gas-phase non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) observed in the complex mixture of fire emissions. We used several approaches to assign best identities to most major "exact masses" including many high molecular mass species. Using these methods ap-proximately 80–96 % of the total NMOC mass detected by PTR-TOF-MS and FTIR was 10 positively or tentatively identified for major fuel types. We report data for many rarely measured or previously unmeasured emissions in several compound classes including aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, and furans; many of which are suspected secondary organic aerosol precursors. A large set of new emission factors (EFs) for a range of globally significant biomass fuels is presented. Measurements show that 15 oxygenated NMOCs accounted for the largest fraction of emissions of all compound classes. In a brief study of various traditional and advanced cooking methods, the EFs for these emissions groups were greatest for open 3-stone cooking in comparison to their more advanced counterparts. Several little-studied nitrogen-containing organic compounds were detected from many fuel types that together accounted for 0.1–8.7 % 20 of the fuel nitrogen and some may play a role in new particle formation.</p>