[Grabmer2004] "Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of monoterpene fluxes from a Norway spruce forest using PTR-MS",
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
, vol. 239, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 111–115, 2004.
Interest in reliable quantification of organic trace compounds released from terrestrial ecosystems stems from their impact on oxidant levels such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals and on secondary organic aerosol formation. In an attempt to quantify these emissions, a disjunct sampler (DS) was coupled to a PTR-MS instrument. In the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique, an instantaneous grab sample is taken at intervals of tens of seconds and vertical wind speed is recorded at the instant of sample collection. The intermittent periods are used for sample analysis by a moderately fast chemical sensor, in this case a PTR-MS instrument, which allows for fast and sensitive detection of biogenic volatile organic compounds. The vertical turbulent transport of a trace compound is then calculated from the covariance of the fluctuations in vertical wind speed and compound mixing ratio. Fluxes of monoterpenes from a Norway spruce forest were measured during the 2002 summer intensive field campaign of BEWA2000 and results compared well with data obtained using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and the enclosure approach. In addition to this field experiment, a laboratory test was carried out to validate the disjunct sampling procedure.
[Karl2004] "Exchange processes of volatile organic compounds above a tropical rain forest: Implications for modeling tropospheric chemistry above dense vegetation",
Journal of geophysical research
, vol. 109, no. D18: American Geophysical Union, pp. D18306, 2004.
Disjunct eddy covariance in conjunction with continuous in-canopy gradient measurements allowed for the first time to quantify the fine-scale source and sink distribution of some of the most abundant biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and photooxidized (MVK+MAC, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic, and formic acid) VOCs in an old growth tropical rain forest. Our measurements revealed substantial isoprene emissions (up to 2.50 mg m−2 h−1) and light-dependent monoterpene emissions (up to 0.33 mg m−2 h−1) at the peak of the dry season (April and May 2003). Oxygenated species such as methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde were typically emitted during daytime with net fluxes up to 0.50, 0.36, and 0.20 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. When generalized for tropical rain forests, these fluxes would add up to a total emission of 36, 16, 19, 106, and 7.2 Tg/yr for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene, and monoterpenes, respectively. During nighttime we observed strong sinks for oxygenated and nitrogen-containing compounds such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, MVK+MAC, and acetonitrile with deposition velocities close to the aerodynamic limit. This suggests that the canopy resistance (Rc) is very small and not the rate-limiting step for the nighttime deposition of many VOCs. Our measured mean dry deposition velocities of methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, MVK+MAC, and acetonitrile were a factor 10–20 higher than estimated from traditional deposition models. If our measurements are generalized, this could have important implications for the redistribution of VOCs in atmospheric chemistry models. Our observations indicate that the current understanding of reactive carbon exchange can only be seen as a first-order approximation.
[Hayward2004] "Online analysis of volatile organic compound emissions from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).",
, vol. 24, no. 7: Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, U.K., pp. 721–728, Jul, 2004.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) growing in a range of controlled light and temperature regimes were monitored online with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operating at a temporal resolution of approximately 1 min. Isoprene emissions accounted for an average of more than 70% of measured VOCs and up to 3.5% of assimilated carbon. Emission rates (E) for isoprene correlated closely with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and temperature, showing saturation at a PPF of between 300 and 400 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and a maximum between 35 and 38 degrees C. Under standard conditions of 30 degrees C and 1000 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the mean isoprene E was 13 microg gdm(-1) h(-1), considerably higher than previously observed in this species. Mean E for acetaldehyde, methanol and monoterpenes at 30 degrees C were 0.37, 0.78 and 2.97 microg gdm(-1) h(-1), respectively. In response to a sudden light to dark transition, isoprene E decreased exponentially by > 98% over about 3 h; however, during the first 7 min, this otherwise steady decay was temporarily but immediately depressed to approximately 40% of the pre-darkness rate, before rallying during the following 7 min to rejoin the general downward trajectory of the exponential decay. The sudden sharp fall in isoprene E was mirrored by a burst in acetaldehyde E. The acetaldehyde E maximum coincided with the isoprene E minimum (7 min post-illumination), and ceased when isoprene emissions resumed their exponential decay. The causes of, and linkages between, these phenomena were investigated.