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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Filters: Author is Herndon, Scott C.  [Clear All Filters]
[1637] Wood, E. C., B. W Knighton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, T. B. Onasch, J. P. Franklin, D. R. Worsnop, T. R. Dallmann, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, et al., "Ethylene glycol emissions from on-road vehicles.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 49, pp. 3322–3329, Mar, 2015.
<p>Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), used as engine coolant for most on-road vehicles, is an intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) with a high Henry&#39;s law coefficient. We present measurements of ethylene glycol (EG) vapor in the Caldecott Tunnel near San Francisco, using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Ethylene glycol was detected at mass-to-charge ratio 45, usually interpreted as solely coming from acetaldehyde. EG concentrations in bore 1 of the Caldecott Tunnel, which has a 4% uphill grade, were characterized by infrequent (approximately once per day) events with concentrations exceeding 10 times the average concentration, likely from vehicles with malfunctioning engine coolant systems. Limited measurements in tunnels near Houston and Boston are not conclusive regarding the presence of EG in sampled air. Previous PTR-MS measurements in urban areas may have overestimated acetaldehyde concentrations at times due to this interference by ethylene glycol. Estimates of EG emission rates from the Caldecott Tunnel data are unrealistically high, suggesting that the Caldecott data are not representative of emissions on a national or global scale. EG emissions are potentially important because they can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol following oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase.</p>
[Knighton2007a] W Knighton, B., S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, R. C. Miake-Lye, M. S. Zahniser, K. Akiyama, A. Shimono, K. Kitasaka, H. Shimajiri, and K. Sugihara, "Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein.", J Air Waste Manag Assoc, vol. 57, no. 11: MT 59717, USA., pp. 1370–1378, Nov, 2007.
We demonstrate the use of an aldehyde scrubber system to resolve isobaric aldehyde/alkene interferences in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) by selectively removing the aldehydes from the gas mixture without loss of quantitative information for the alkene components. The aldehyde scrubber system uses a bisulfite solution, which scrubs carbonyl compounds from the gas stream by forming water-soluble carbonyl bisulfite addition products, and has been evaluated using a synthetic mixture of acrolein and isoprene. Trapping efficiencies of acrolein exceeded 97%, whereas the transmission efficiency of isoprene was better than 92%. Quantification of the PTR-MS response to acrolein was validated through an intercomparison study that included two derivatization methods, dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET), and a spectroscopic method using a quantum cascade laser infrared absorption spectroscopy (QCL) instrument. Finally, using cigarette smoke as a complex matrix, the acrolein content was assessed using the scrubber and compared with direct QCL-based detection.
[Herndon2006] Herndon, S. C., T. Rogers, E. J. Dunlea, J. T. Jayne, R. Miake-Lye, and B. Knighton, "Hydrocarbon emissions from in-use commercial aircraft during airport operations.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 40, no. 14: Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts, USA., pp. 4406–4413, Jul, 2006.
The emissions of selected hydrocarbons from in-use commercial aircraft at a major airport in the United States were characterized using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) to probe the composition of diluted exhaust plumes downwind. The emission indices for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and toluene, as well as other hydrocarbon species, were determined through analysis of 45 intercepted plumes identified as being associated with specific aircraft. As would have been predicted for high bypass turbine engines, the hydrocarbon emission index was greater in idle and taxiway acceleration plumes relative to approach and takeoff plumes. The opposite was seen in total NOy emission index, which increased from idle to takeoff. Within the idle plumes sampled in this study, the median emission index for formaldehyde was 1.1 g of HCHO per kg of fuel. For the subset of hydrocarbons measured in this work, the idle emissions levels relative to formaldehyde agree well with those of previous studies. The projected total unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) deduced from the range of in-use idle plumes analyzed in this work is greater than a plausible range of engine types using the defined idle condition (7% of rated engine thrust) in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank reference.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).

J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.

W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.


Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics


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