[DAnna2005] "Atmospheric chemistry of C3-C6 cycloalkanecarbaldehydes.",
J Phys Chem A
, vol. 109, no. 23: Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo, Norway. email@example.com, pp. 5104–5118, Jun, 2005.
The rate coefficients for the gas phase reaction of NO3 and OH radicals with a series of cycloalkanecarbaldehydes have been measured in purified air at 298 +/- 2 K and 760 +/- 10 Torr by the relative rate method using a static reactor equipped with long-path Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection. The values obtained for the OH radical reactions (in units of 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) were the following: cyclopropanecarbaldehyde, 2.13 +/- 0.05; cyclobutanecarbaldehyde, 2.66 +/- 0.06; cyclopentanecarbaldehyde, 3.27 +/- 0.07; cyclohexanecarbaldehyde, 3.75 +/- 0.05. The values obtained for the NO3 radical reactions (in units of 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) were the following: cyclopropanecarbaldehyde, 0.61 +/- 0.04; cyclobutanecarbaldehyde, 1.99 +/- 0.06; cyclopentanecarbaldehyde, 2.55 +/- 0.10; cyclohexanecarbaldehyde, 3.19 +/- 0.12. Furthermore, the reaction products with OH radicals have been investigated using long-path FT-IR spectroscopy and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The measured carbon balances were in the range 89-97%, and the identified products cover a wide spectrum of compounds including nitroperoxycarbonyl cycloalkanes, cycloketones, cycloalkyl nitrates, multifunctional compounds containing carbonyl, hydroxy, and nitrooxy functional groups, HCOOH, HCHO, CO, and CO2.
[Jacob2005] "Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations",
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)
, vol. 110, no. D8: Wiley Online Library, 2005.
We use a global three-dimensional model simulation of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current understanding of sources and sinks. Global sources in the model include 128 Tg yr−1 from plant growth, 38 Tg yr−1 from atmospheric reactions of CH3O2 with itself and other organic peroxy radicals, 23 Tg yr−1 from plant decay, 13 Tg yr−1 from biomass burning and biofuels, and 4 Tg yr−1 from vehicles and industry. The plant growth source is a factor of 3 higher for young than from mature leaves. The atmospheric lifetime of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry deposition to land 26%, wet deposition 6%, uptake by the ocean 5%, and aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds less than 1%. The resulting simulation of atmospheric concentrations is generally unbiased in the Northern Hemisphere and reproduces the observed correlations of methanol with acetone, HCN, and CO in Asian outflow. Accounting for decreasing emission from leaves as they age is necessary to reproduce the observed seasonal variation of methanol concentrations at northern midlatitudes. The main model discrepancy is over the South Pacific, where simulated concentrations are a factor of 2 too low. Atmospheric production from the CH3O2 self-reaction is the dominant model source in this region. A factor of 2 increase in this source (to 50–100 Tg yr−1) would largely correct the discrepancy and appears consistent with independent constraints on CH3O2 concentrations. Our resulting best estimate of the global source of methanol is 240 Tg yr−1. More observations of methanol concentrations and fluxes are needed over tropical continents. Better knowledge is needed of CH3O2 concentrations in the remote troposphere and of the underlying organic chemistry.
[Beauchamp2005] "Ozone induced emissions of biogenic VOC from tobacco: relationships between ozone uptake and emission of LOX products",
Plant, Cell & Environment
, vol. 28, no. 10: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1334–1343, 2005.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3) plants exposed to ozone (O3) were investigated using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) to find a quantitative reference for plants’ responses to O3 stress. O3 exposures to illuminated plants induced post-exposure VOC emission bursts. The lag time for the onset of volatile C6 emissions produced within the octadecanoid pathway was found to be inversely proportional to O3 uptake, or more precisely, to the O3 flux density into the plants. In cases of short O3 pulses of identical duration the total amount of these emitted C6 VOC was related to the O3 flux density into the plants, and not to ozone concentrations or dose–response relationships such as AOT 40 values. Approximately one C6 product was emitted per five O3 molecules taken up by the plant. A threshold flux density of O3 inducing emissions of C6 products was found to be (1.6 ± 0.7) × 10−8 mol m−2 s−1.
[Wisthaler2005] "Products of ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated aircraft environment.",
Environ Sci Technol
, vol. 39, no. 13: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark., pp. 4823–4832, Jul, 2005.
We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline), cabin plus ozone, cabin plus soiled T-shirts (surrogates for human occupants), and cabin plus soiled T-shirts plus ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin without T-shirts, at concentrations typically encountered during commercial air travel, increased the mixing ratio (v:v concentration) of detected pollutants from 35 ppb to 80 ppb. Most of this increase was due to the production of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and tentatively identified low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The addition of soiled T-shirts, with no ozone present, increased the mixing ratio of pollutants in the cabin air only slightly, whereas the combination of soiled T-shirts and ozone increased the mixing ratio of detected pollutants to 110 ppb, with more than 20 ppb originating from squalene oxidation products (acetone, 4-oxopentanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one). For the two conditions with ozone present, the more-abundant oxidation products included acetone/propanal (8-20 ppb), formaldehyde (8-10 ppb), nonanal (approximately 6 ppb), 4-oxopentanal (3-7 ppb), acetic acid (approximately 7 ppb), formic acid (approximately 3 ppb), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (0.5-2.5 ppb), as well as compounds tentatively identified as acrolein (0.6-1 ppb) and crotonaldehyde (0.6-0.8 ppb). The odor thresholds of certain products were exceeded. With an outdoor air exchange of 3 h(-1) and a recirculation rate of 20 h(-1), the measured ozone surface removal rate constant was 6.3 h(-1) when T-shirts were not present, compared to 11.4 h(-1) when T-shirts were present.