[Wisthaler2007] "PTR-MS assessment of photocatalytic and sorption-based purification of recirculated cabin air during simulated 7-h flights with high passenger density.",
Environ Sci Technol
, vol. 41, no. 1: Institut fuer Ionenphysik, Leopold-Franzens- Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. email@example.com, pp. 229–234, Jan, 2007.
Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefilter; and a two-stage sorption-based air filter (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h flights with 17 occupants. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was efficiently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline mealsto produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
[Hansel2004] "Proton transfer mass spectrometer",
, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 197–199, 2004.
[Wisthaler2005] "Products of ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated aircraft environment.",
Environ Sci Technol
, vol. 39, no. 13: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark., pp. 4823–4832, Jul, 2005.
We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline), cabin plus ozone, cabin plus soiled T-shirts (surrogates for human occupants), and cabin plus soiled T-shirts plus ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin without T-shirts, at concentrations typically encountered during commercial air travel, increased the mixing ratio (v:v concentration) of detected pollutants from 35 ppb to 80 ppb. Most of this increase was due to the production of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and tentatively identified low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The addition of soiled T-shirts, with no ozone present, increased the mixing ratio of pollutants in the cabin air only slightly, whereas the combination of soiled T-shirts and ozone increased the mixing ratio of detected pollutants to 110 ppb, with more than 20 ppb originating from squalene oxidation products (acetone, 4-oxopentanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one). For the two conditions with ozone present, the more-abundant oxidation products included acetone/propanal (8-20 ppb), formaldehyde (8-10 ppb), nonanal (approximately 6 ppb), 4-oxopentanal (3-7 ppb), acetic acid (approximately 7 ppb), formic acid (approximately 3 ppb), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (0.5-2.5 ppb), as well as compounds tentatively identified as acrolein (0.6-1 ppb) and crotonaldehyde (0.6-0.8 ppb). The odor thresholds of certain products were exceeded. With an outdoor air exchange of 3 h(-1) and a recirculation rate of 20 h(-1), the measured ozone surface removal rate constant was 6.3 h(-1) when T-shirts were not present, compared to 11.4 h(-1) when T-shirts were present.
[Tholl2006] "Practical approaches to plant volatile analysis",
The Plant Journal
, vol. 45, no. 4: Wiley Online Library, pp. 540–560, 2006.
Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that play important roles in their interaction with the environment and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry. The development of static and dynamic techniques for headspace collection of volatiles in combination with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis has significantly improved our understanding of the biosynthesis and ecology of plant VOCs. Advances in automated analysis of VOCs have allowed the monitoring of fast changes in VOC emissions and facilitated in vivo studies of VOC biosynthesis. This review presents an overview of methods for the analysis of plant VOCs, including their advantages and disadvantages, with a focus on the latest technical developments. It provides guidance on how to select appropriate instrumentation and protocols for biochemical, physiological and ecologically relevant applications. These include headspace analyses of plant VOCs emitted by the whole organism, organs or enzymes as well as advanced on-line analysis methods for simultaneous measurements of VOC emissions with other physiological parameters.