[Boscaini2003] "Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) analysis of the flavor profile of grana padano, parmigiano reggiano, and grana trentino cheeses.",
J Agric Food Chem
, vol. 51, no. 7: Institut fuer Ionenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria., pp. 1782–1790, Mar, 2003.
Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques were used to deduce the profile of odor-active and volatile compounds of three grana cheeses: Grana Padano (GP), Parmigiano Reggiano (PR), and Grana Trentino (GT). Samples for GC-O analysis were prepared by dynamic headspace extraction, while a direct analysis of the headspace formed over cheese was performed by PTR-MS. The major contributors to the odor profile were ethyl butanoate, 2-heptanone, and ethyl hexanoate, with fruity notes. A high concentration of mass 45, tentatively identified as acetaldehyde, was found by PTR-MS analysis. Low odor threshold compounds, e.g., methional and 1-octen-3-one, which contributed to the odor profile but were not detected by FID, were detected by PTR-MS. Principal component analysis on both GC-O and PTR-MS data separated the three cheese samples well and showed specific compounds related to each sample.
[Hansson2003] "The influence of gel strength on aroma release from pectin gels in a model mouth and in vivo, monitored with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry.",
J Agric Food Chem
, vol. 51, no. 16: The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), P.O. Box 5401, S-402 29 Goeteborg, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org, pp. 4732–4740, Jul, 2003.
The course of events from taking a food into the mouth to the perception of the food's flavor involves many steps, from dilution with saliva, mastication, and transportation of the compounds to the olfactory epithelium to transformation into signals that go to the brain. In addition, there are also the effects of the food's structure and properties. In this study, a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to investigate how four pectin-containing systems with different structures and strengths affected the release of aroma compounds in a model mouth and in the nose of an assessor. Both the model mouth and the in-nose measurements showed that the strength and structure of pectin-containing systems are important with regard to the quantity of aroma compounds that are released. Mastication and saliva were also shown to have a large influence on how much of the aroma compound is released from the mouth to the nose.