[Siefarth2011] "Influence of polyols and bulking agents on flavour release from low-viscosity solutions",
, vol. 129, no. 4: Elsevier, pp. 1462–1468, 2011.
The release of four volatile flavour compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate and butyl isovalerate) from pure water and various low-viscosity aqueous solutions (sucrose, maltitol, erythritol, polydextrose and oligofructose, each at 20% (w/w)) was investigated. Dynamic headspace concentrations of the flavour compounds at thermodynamic equilibrium were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The rheological properties of the solutions were characterised by their viscosity. Flavour release from pure water increased with increasing hydrophobicity and volatility of the flavour compounds. The highly volatile compounds were retained more extensively in the presence of sucrose, polyols and bulking agents, compared to in pure water, whereas an increase in the release of the less volatile cis-3-hexen-1-ol was observed. All aqueous solutions had similar viscosities, although bulking agent solutions tended to have higher viscosities than polyol solutions of the same concentration. A correlation between viscosity and flavour release in the low-viscosity solutions was not evident.
[Siefarth2011a] "Mixture design approach as a tool to study in vitro flavor release and viscosity interactions in sugar-free polyol and bulking agent solutions",
Food Research International
, vol. 44, no. 10: Elsevier, pp. 3202–3211, 2011.
Flavor release from mixtures of maltitol, erythritol, polydextrose and oligofructose dissolved in water at concentrations of 43% (w/w) was investigated to analyze possible interactions between the viscous matrix and the volatiles using an experimental mixture design in combination with data analysis and response modeling tools. The dynamic release of four flavor compounds (cis-3-hexenol, benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate and butyl isovalerate) from the matrices at 37 °C was determined by headspace analyses using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The aim of the present study was to understand the complex release mechanisms from high-viscosity polyol and bulking agent solutions for the intention of conducting further studies on flavor release from sugar-free confectionary products. Each of the non-volatiles had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on flavor release with regression coefficients (R²) between 0.72 and 0.93 for the release parameters Imax, t½, and Δc/Δt, and 0.99 for viscosity. However, the magnitude of influence varied between the bulking agents and polyols due to their different molecular weights. A clear correlation between viscosity of the solutions and flavor release was found, revealing complex matrix-volatile interactions in the high-viscosity solutions. The release of all investigated flavor compounds decreased when the viscosity of the solutions increased. Therefore, it is assumed that the flavor release is significantly influenced by the non-volatiles when a critical concentration (c*) is exceeded. Interactions between the sugar substitutes were found to affect the viscosity of the matrices, whereas flavor release was not affected by interactions between the polyols and bulking agents investigated.