[Graus2006] "A relaxed-eddy-accumulation method for the measurement of isoprenoid canopy-fluxes using an online gas-chromatographic technique and PTR-MS simultaneously",
, vol. 40: Elsevier, pp. 43–54, 2006.
A relaxed-eddy-accumulation set-up using an online gas-chromatographic technique and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was applied to determine isoprenoid fluxes above a Norway spruce forest in July 2001/2002. The system was quality assured and its suitability for determination of canopy fluxes of isoprenoids was demonstrated. Flux measurements of oxygenated hydrocarbons failed the data quality check due to artefacts presumably arising from line and ozone-scrubber effects. Observations of turbulent fluxes of isoprenoids during the two field experiments show good agreements with primary flux data derived from enclosure measurements and modelling results using a canopy-chemistry emission model (CACHE).
[Forkel2006] "Trace gas exchange and gas phase chemistry in a Norway spruce forest: A study with a coupled 1-dimensional canopy atmospheric chemistry emission model",
, vol. 40: Elsevier, pp. 28–42, 2006.
Numerical modelling is an efficient tool to investigate the role of chemical degradation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) and the effect of dynamical processes on BVOC and product mixing ratios within and above forest canopies. The present study shows an application of the coupled canopy-chemistry model CACHE to a Norway spruce forest at the Waldstein (Fichtelgebirge, Germany). Simulated courses of temperature, trace gas mixing ratios, and fluxes are compared with measurements taken during the BEWA2000 field campaigns. The model permits the interpretation of the observed diurnal course of ozone and VOC by investigating the role of turbulent exchange, chemical formation and degradation, emission, and deposition during the course of the day. The simulation results show that BVOC fluxes into the atmosphere are 10–15% lower than the emission fluxes on branch basis due to chemical BVOC degradation within the canopy. BVOC degradation by the NO3 radical was found to occur in the lower part of the canopy also during daytime. Furthermore, the simulations strongly indicate that further research is still necessary concerning the emission and deposition of aldehydes and ketones.