[Colomb2006] "Airborne measurements of trace organic species in the upper troposphere over Europe: the impact of deep convection",
, vol. 3, no. 4: CSIRO, pp. 244–259, 2006.
The volume mixing ratios of several organic trace gases and ozone (O3) were measured in the upper troposphere over Europe during the UTOPIHAN-ACT aircraft campaign in July 2003. The organic trace gases included alkanes, isoprene, aromatics, iodomethane, and trichloroethylene, oxygenates such as acetone, methanol, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and longer-lived tracer species such as chlorofluorocarbons and halochloroflurocarbons. The aim of the UTOPIHAN-ACT project was to study the chemical impact of deep convection on the continental upper troposphere. A Lear Jet aircraft, based in Germany, was flown at heights between 6 and 13 km in the region 59°N–42°N to 7°W–13°E during July 2003. Overall, the convectively influenced measurements presented here show a weaker variability lifetime dependence of trace gases than similar measurements collected over the Mediterranean region under more stable high-pressure conditions. Several cases of convective outflow are identified by the elevated mixing ratios of organic species relative to quiescent background conditions, with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences detectable in the upper troposphere. Enhancement at higher altitudes, notably of species with relatively short chemical lifetimes such as benzene, toluene, and even isoprene indicates deep convection over short timescales during summertime. The impact of deep convection on the local upper tropospheric formaldehyde and HOx budgets is assessed.