[Roberts2003] "Comparison of nosespace, headspace, and sensory intensity ratings for the evaluation of flavor absorption by fat.",
J Agric Food Chem
, vol. 51, no. 12: NestlÃ© Research Center, P.O. Box 44, Vers-Chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org, pp. 3636–3642, Jun, 2003.
The goal of this study was to better understand the correspondence between sensory perception and in-nose compound concentration. Five aroma compounds at three different concentrations increasing by factors of 4 were added to four matrixes (water, skim milk, 2.7% fat milk, and 3.8% fat milk). These were evaluated by nosespace analysis with detection by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), using five panelists. These same panelists evaluated the perceived intensity of each compound in the matrixes at the three concentrations. PTR-MS quantification found that the percent released from an aqueous solution swallowed immediately was between 0.1 and 0.6%, depending on the compound. The nosespace and sensory results showed the expected effect of fat on release, where lipophilic compounds showed reductions in release as fat content increases. The effect is less than that observed in headspace studies. A general correlation between nosespace concentration and sensory intensity ratings was found. However, examples of perceptual masking were found where higher fat milks showed reductions in aroma compound intensity ratings, even if the nosespace concentrations were the same.