[Kamysek2011] "Drug detection in breath: effects of pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output on propofol exhalation.",
Anal Bioanal Chem
, vol. 401, no. 7: Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 35, 18057 Rostock, Germany., pp. 2093–2102, Oct, 2011.
Breath analysis could offer a non-invasive means of intravenous drug monitoring if robust correlations between drug concentrations in breath and blood can be established. In this study, propofol blood and breath concentrations were determined in an animal model under varying physiological conditions. Propofol concentrations in breath were determined by means of two independently calibrated analytical methods: continuous, real-time proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and discontinuous solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Blood concentrations were determined by means of SPME-GC-MS. Effects of changes in pulmonary blood flow resulting in a decreased cardiac output (CO) and effects of dobutamine administration resulting in an increased CO on propofol breath concentrations and on the correlation between propofol blood and breath concentrations were investigated in seven acutely instrumented pigs. Discontinuous propofol determination in breath by means of alveolar sampling and SPME-GC-MS showed good agreement (R(2)=0.959) with continuous alveolar real-time measurement by means of PTR-MS. In all investigated animals, increasing cardiac output led to a deterioration of the relationship between breath and blood propofol concentrations (R(2)=0.783 for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and R(2)=0.795 for PTR-MS). Decreasing pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output through banding of the pulmonary artery did not significantly affect the relationship between propofol breath and blood concentrations (R(2)>0.90). Estimation of propofol blood concentrations from exhaled alveolar concentrations seems possible by means of different analytical methods even when cardiac output is decreased. Increases in cardiac output preclude prediction of blood propofol concentration from exhaled concentrations.
[Schwoebel2011] "Phase-resolved real-time breath analysis during exercise by means of smart processing of PTR-MS data.",
Anal Bioanal Chem
, vol. 401, no. 7: Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock, Germany., pp. 2079–2091, Oct, 2011.
Separation of inspiratory, mixed expired and alveolar air is indispensable for reliable analysis of VOC breath biomarkers. Time resolution of direct mass spectrometers often is not sufficient to reliably resolve the phases of a breathing cycle. To realise fast on-line breath monitoring by means of direct MS utilising low-fragmentation soft ionisation, a data processing algorithm was developed to identify inspiratory and alveolar phases from MS data without any additional equipment. To test the algorithm selected breath biomarkers (acetone, isoprene, acetaldehyde and hexanal) were determined by means of quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in seven healthy volunteers during exercise on a stationary bicycle. The results were compared to an off-line reference method consisting of controlled alveolar breath sampling in Tedlar(R) bags, preconcentration by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), separation and identification by GC-MS. Based on the data processing method, quantitative attribution of biomarkers to inspiratory, alveolar and mixed expiratory phases was possible at any time during the experiment, even under respiratory rates up to 60/min. Alveolar concentrations of the breath markers, measured by PTR-MS ranged from 130 to 2,600 ppb (acetone), 10 to 540 ppb (isoprene), 2 to 31 ppb (acetaldehyde), whereas the concentrations of hexanal were always below the limit of detection (LOD) of 3 ppb. There was good correlation between on-line PTR-MS and SPME-GC-MS measurements during phases with stable physiological parameters but results diverged during rapid changes of heart rate and minute ventilation. This clearly demonstrates the benefits of breath-resolved MS for fast on-line monitoring of exhaled VOCs.