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Found 13 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Goldstein, A. H.  [Clear All Filters]
2014
[1516] Misztal, P.. K., T.. Karl, R.. Weber, H.. H. Jonsson, A.. B. Guenther, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 14, pp. 7965–8013, Mar, 2014.
Link: http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/14/7965/2014/acpd-14-7965-2014.html
Abstract
<p>Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over 10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate &quot;instantaneous&quot; fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using &quot;racetrack&quot; profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 &plusmn; 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m&minus;2 h&minus;1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.</p>
[1515] Park, J.-H.., S.. Fares, R.. Weber, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux-gradient similarity methods", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, pp. 231–244, Jan, 2014.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Park et al-acp-14-231-2014.pdf
Abstract
<p>The Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, during summer 2009. We deployed a proton transfer reaction&ndash;quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) to measure fluxes and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Eighteen ion species, including the major BVOC expected at the site, were measured sequentially at 5 heights to observe their vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 3 dominant BVOCs methanol, 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes were measured above the canopy by the disjunct eddy covariance (EC) method. Canopy-scale fluxes were also determined by the flux&ndash;gradient similarity method (K-theory). A universal K (Kuniv) was determined as the mean of individual K&#39;s calculated from the measured fluxes divided by vertical gradients for methanol, MBO, and monoterpenes. This Kuniv was then multiplied by the gradients of each observed ion species to compute their fluxes. The flux&ndash;gradient similarity method showed very good agreement with the disjunct EC method. Fluxes are presented for all measured species and compared to historical measurements from the same site, and used to test emission algorithms used to model fluxes at the regional scale. MBO was the dominant emission observed, followed by methanol, monoterpenes, acetone, and acetaldehyde. The flux&ndash;gradient similarity method is shown to be tenable, and we recommend its use, especially in experimental conditions when fast measurement of BVOC species is not available.</p>
2013
[Park2013] Park, J-H.., A.. H. Goldstein, J.. Timkovsky, S.. Fares, R.. Weber, J.. Karlik, and R.. Holzinger, "Active atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of the vast majority of detected volatile organic compounds.", Science, vol. 341, no. 6146: Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA., pp. 643–647, Aug, 2013.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Park%20et%20al%20Science%202013.pdf
Abstract
<p>Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exist in Earth&#39;s atmosphere, most of which originate from biogenic emissions. Despite VOCs&#39; critical role in tropospheric chemistry, studies for evaluating their atmosphere-ecosystem exchange (emission and deposition) have been limited to a few dominant compounds owing to a lack of appropriate measurement techniques. Using a high-mass resolution proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer and an absolute value eddy-covariance method, we directly measured 186 organic ions with net deposition, and 494 that have bidirectional flux. This observation of active atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of the vast majority of detected VOCs poses a challenge to current emission, air quality, and global climate models, which do not account for this extremely large range of compounds. This observation also provides new insight for understanding the atmospheric VOC budget.</p>
[1514] Karl, T.., P.. K. Misztal, H.. H. Jonsson, S.. Shertz, A.. H. Goldstein, and A.. B. Guenther, "Airborne Flux Measurements of BVOCs above Californian Oak Forests: Experimental Investigation of Surface and Entrainment Fluxes, OH Densities, and Damköhler Numbers", J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 70, pp. 3277–3287, Oct, 2013.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Karl et al 2013 JAS.pdf
Abstract
<p>Airborne flux measurements of isoprene were performed over the Californian oak belts surrounding the Central Valley. The authors demonstrate for the first time 1) the feasibility of airborne eddy covariance measurements of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds; 2) the effect of chemistry on the vertical transport of reactive species, such as isoprene; and 3) the applicability of wavelet analysis to estimate regional fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds. These flux measurements demonstrate that instrumentation operating at slower response times (e.g., 1&ndash;5 s) can still be used to determine eddy covariance fluxes in the mixed layer above land, where typical length scales of 0.5&ndash;3 km were observed. Flux divergence of isoprene measured in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is indicative of OH densities in the range of 4&ndash;7 &times; 106 molecules per cubic centimeter and allows extrapolation of airborne fluxes to the surface with Damköhler numbers (ratio between the mixing time scale and the chemical time scale) in the range of 0.3&ndash;0.9. Most of the isoprene is oxidized in the PBL with entrainment fluxes of about 10% compared to the corresponding surface fluxes. Entrainment velocities of 1&ndash;10 cm s&minus;1 were measured. The authors present implications for parameterizing PBL schemes of reactive species in regional and global models.</p>
[1513] Holzinger, R.., A.. H. Goldstein, P.. L. Hayes, J.. L. Jimenez, and J.. Timkovsky, "Chemical evolution of organic aerosol in Los Angeles during the CalNex 2010 study", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, pp. 10125–10141, Oct, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10125-2013
Abstract
<p>During the CalNex study (15 May to 16 June 2010) a large suite of instruments was operated at the Los Angeles area ground supersite to characterize the sources and atmospheric processing of atmospheric pollution. The thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS) was deployed to an urban area for the first time and detected 691 organic ions in aerosol samples, the mean total concentration of which was estimated as 3.3 μg m&minus;3. Based on comparison to total organic aerosol (OA) measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of the OA mass at this site was directly measured by the TD-PTR-MS. Based on correlations with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) OA components, the ions were grouped to represent hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), local OA (LOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Mass spectra and thermograms of the ion groups are mostly consistent with the assumed sources and/or photochemical origin of the OA components. The mass spectra of ions representing the primary components HOA and LOA included the highest m/z, consistent with their higher resistance to thermal decomposition, and they were volatilized at lower temperatures (&nbsp; 150 &deg;C). Photochemical ageing weakens C-C bond strengths (also resulting in chemical fragmentation), and produces species of lower volatility (through the addition of functional groups). Accordingly the mass spectra of ions representing the oxidized OA components (SV-OOA, and LV-OOA) lack the highest masses and they are volatilized at higher temperatures (250&ndash;300 &deg;C). Chemical parameters like mean carbon number (nC), mean carbon oxidation state (OSC), and the atomic ratios O / C and H / C of the ion groups are consistent with the expected sources and photochemical processing of the aerosol components. Our data suggest that chemical fragmentation gains importance over functionalization as photochemical age of OA increases. Surprisingly, the photochemical age of OA decreases during the daytime hours, demonstrating the importance of rapid production of new (photochemically young) SV-OOA during daytime. The PTR detects higher organic N concentrations than the AMS, the reasons for which are not well understood and cannot be explained by known artifacts related to PTR or the AMS. The median atomic N / C ratio (6.4%) of the ion group representing LV-OOA is a factor 2 higher than N / C of any other ion group. This suggests a multiphase chemical source involving ammonium ions is contributing to LV-OOA.</p>
2012
[1512] Park, J.-H.., A.. H. Goldstein, J.. Timkovsky, S.. Fares, R.. Weber, J.. Karlik, and R.. Holzinger, "Eddy covariance emission and deposition flux measurements using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-{MS}): comparison with PTR-{MS} measured vertical gradients and fluxes", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 12, pp. 20435–20482, Aug, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acpd-12-20435-2012
Abstract
<p>During summer 2010, a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and a standard proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were deployed simultaneously for one month in an orange orchard in the Central Valley of California to collect continuous data suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux calculations. The high time resolution (5 Hz) and high mass resolution (up to 5000 m Δ m&minus;1) data from the PTR-TOF-MS provided the basis for calculating the concentration and flux for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Throughout the campaign, 664 mass peaks were detected in mass-to-charge ratios between 10 and 1278. Here we present PTR-TOF-MS EC fluxes of the 27 ion species for which the vertical gradient was simultaneously measured by PTR-MS. These EC flux data were validated through spectral analysis (i.e. co-spectrum, normalized co-spectrum, and ogive). Based on inter-comparison of the two PTR instruments, no significant instrumental biases were found in either mixing ratios or fluxes, and the data showed agreement within 5% on average for methanol and acetone. For the measured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), the EC fluxes from PTR-TOF-MS were in agreement with the qualitatively inferred flux directions from vertical gradient measurements by PTR-MS. For the 27 selected ion species reported here, the PTR-TOF-MS measured total (24 h) mean net flux of 299 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1. The dominant BVOC emissions from this site were monoterpenes (m/z 81.070 + m/z 137.131 + m/z 95.086, 34%, 102 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1) and methanol (m/z 33.032, 18%, 72 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1). The next largest fluxes were detected at the following masses (attribution in parenthesis): m/z 59.048 (mostly acetone, 12.2%, 36.5 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1), m/z 61.027 (mostly acetic acid, 11.9%, 35.7 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1), m/z 93.069 (para-cymene + toluene, 4.1%, 12.2 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1), m/z 45.033 (acetaldehyde, 3.8%, 11.5 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1), m/z 71.048 (methylvinylketone + methacrolein, 2.4%, 7.1 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1), and m/z 69.071 (isoprene + 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol, 1.8%, 5.3 μg C m&minus;2 h&minus;1). Low levels of emission and/or deposition (&lt;1.6% for each, 5.8% in total flux) were observed for the additional reported masses. Overall, our results show that EC flux measurements using PTR-TOF-MS is a powerful new tool for characterizing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange including both emission and deposition for a large range of BVOC and their oxidation products.</p>
[1511] Fares, S.., J.-H.. Park, D.. R. Gentner, R.. Weber, E.. Ormeᅢᄆo, J.. Karlik, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Seasonal cycles of biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in a California citrus orchard", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, pp. 9865–9880, Oct, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9865-2012
Abstract
<p>Orange trees are widely cultivated in Mediterranean climatic regions where they are an important agricultural crop. Citrus have been characterized as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in chamber studies under controlled environmental conditions, but an extensive characterization at field scale has never been performed using modern measurement methods, and is particularly needed considering the complex interactions between the orchards and the polluted atmosphere in which Citrus is often cultivated. For one year, in a Valencia orange orchard in Exeter, California, we measured fluxes using PTRMS (Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and eddy covariance for the most abundant VOC typically emitted from citrus vegetation: methanol, acetone, and isoprenoids. Concentration gradients of additional oxygenated and aromatic compounds from the ground level to above the canopy were also measured. In order to characterize concentrations of speciated biogenic VOC (BVOC) in leaves, we analyzed leaf content by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography &ndash; Mass Spectrometery) regularly throughout the year. We also characterized in more detail concentrations of speciated BVOC in the air above the orchard by in-situ GC-MS during a few weeks in spring flowering and summer periods. Here we report concentrations and fluxes of the main VOC species emitted by the orchard, discuss how fluxes measured in the field relate to previous studies made with plant enclosures, and describe how VOC content in leaves and emissions change during the year in response to phenological and environmental parameters. The orchard was a source of monoterpenes and oxygenated VOC. The highest emissions were observed during the springtime flowering period, with mid-day fluxes above 2 nmol m&minus;2 s&minus;1 for methanol and up to 1 nmol m&minus;2 s&minus;1 for acetone and monoterpenes. During hot summer days emissions were not as high as we expected considering the known dependence of biogenic emissions on temperature. We provide evidence that thickening of leaf cuticle wax content limited gaseous emissions during the summer.</p>
2011
[1506] Wolfe, G.. M., J.. A. Thornton, N.. C. Bouvier-Brown, A.. H. Goldstein, J.-H.. Park, M.. McKay, D.. M. Matross, J.. Mao, W.. H. Brune, B.. W. LaFranchi, et al., "The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) Model ¬タモ Part 2: Application to BEARPEX-2007 observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, pp. 1269–1294, Feb, 2011.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Wolf et al acp-11-1269-2011.pdf
Abstract
<p>In a companion paper, we introduced the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. Here, we apply CAFE to noontime observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX-2007). In this work we evaluate the CAFE modeling approach, demonstrate the significance of in-canopy chemistry for forest-atmosphere exchange and identify key shortcomings in the current understanding of intra-canopy processes. CAFE generally reproduces BEARPEX-2007 observations but requires an enhanced radical recycling mechanism to overcome a factor of 6 underestimate of hydroxyl (OH) concentrations observed during a warm (&nbsp;29 &deg;C) period. Modeled fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) are quite sensitive to gradients in chemical production and loss, demonstrating that chemistry may perturb forest-atmosphere exchange even when the chemical timescale is long relative to the canopy mixing timescale. The model underestimates peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) fluxes by 50% and the exchange velocity by nearly a factor of three under warmer conditions, suggesting that near-surface APN sinks are underestimated relative to the sources. Nitric acid typically dominates gross dry N deposition at this site, though other reactive nitrogen (NOy) species can comprise up to 28% of the N deposition budget under cooler conditions. Upward NO2 fluxes cause the net above-canopy NOy flux to be &nbsp;30% lower than the gross depositional flux. CAFE under-predicts ozone fluxes and exchange velocities by &nbsp;20%. Large uncertainty in the parameterization of cuticular and ground deposition precludes conclusive attribution of non-stomatal fluxes to chemistry or surface uptake. Model-measurement comparisons of vertical concentration gradients for several emitted species suggests that the lower canopy airspace may be only weakly coupled with the upper canopy. Future efforts to model forest-atmosphere exchange will require a more mechanistic understanding of non-stomatal deposition and a more thorough characterization of in-canopy mixing processes.</p>
[1508] Worton, D.. R., A.. H. Goldstein, D.. K. Farmer, K.. S. Docherty, J.. L. Jimenez, J.. B. Gilman, W.. C. Kuster, J.. de Gouw, B.. J. Williams, N.. M. Kreisberg, et al., "Origins and composition of fine atmospheric carbonaceous aerosol in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, pp. 10219–10241, Oct, 2011.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Worton et al acp-11-10219-2011.pdf
Abstract
<p>In this paper we report chemically resolved measurements of organic aerosol (OA) and related tracers during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) at the Blodgett Forest Research Station, California from 15 August&ndash;10 October 2007. OA contributed the majority of the mass to the fine atmospheric particles and was predominately oxygenated (OOA). The highest concentrations of OA were during sporadic wildfire influence when aged plumes were impacting the site. In situ measurements of particle phase molecular markers were dominated by secondary compounds and along with gas phase compounds could be categorized into six factors or sources: (1) aged biomass burning emissions and oxidized urban emissions, (2) oxidized urban emissions (3) oxidation products of monoterpene emissions, (4) monoterpene emissions, (5) anthropogenic emissions and (6) local methyl chavicol emissions and oxidation products. There were multiple biogenic components that contributed to OA at this site whose contributions varied diurnally, seasonally and in response to changing meteorological conditions, e.g. temperature and precipitation events. Concentrations of isoprene oxidation products were larger when temperatures were higher during the first half of the campaign (15 August&ndash;12 September) due to more substantial emissions of isoprene and enhanced photochemistry. The oxidation of methyl chavicol, an oxygenated terpene emitted by ponderosa pine trees, contributed similarly to OA throughout the campaign. In contrast, the abundances of monoterpene oxidation products in the particle phase were greater during the cooler conditions in the latter half of the campaign (13 September&ndash;10 October), even though emissions of the precursors were lower, although the mechanism is not known. OA was correlated with the anthropogenic tracers 2-propyl nitrate and carbon monoxide (CO), consistent with previous observations, while being comprised of mostly non-fossil carbon (&gt;75%). The correlation between OA and an anthropogenic tracer does not necessarily identify the source of the carbon as being anthropogenic but instead suggests a coupling between the anthropogenic and biogenic components in the air mass that might be related to the source of the oxidant and/or the aerosol sulfate. Observations of organosulfates of isoprene and α-pinene provided evidence for the likely importance of aerosol sulfate in spite of neutralized aerosol although acidic plumes might have played a role upwind of the site. This is in contrast to laboratory studies where strongly acidic seed aerosols were needed in order to form these compounds. These compounds together represented only a minor fraction (&lt;1%) of the total OA mass, which may be the result of the neutralized aerosol at the site or because only a small number of organosulfates were quantified. The low contribution of organosulfates to total OA suggests that other mechanisms, e.g. NOx enhancement of oxidant levels, are likely responsible for the majority of the anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic secondary organic aerosol observed at this site.</p>
2009
[1504] Schurgers, G.., A.. Arneth, R.. Holzinger, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions combining production and release from storage", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, pp. 3409–3423, May, 2009.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3409-2009
Abstract
<p>Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly important for atmospheric chemistry, has not. This understanding is crucial for the understanding of future changes. In this study, two algorithms of terrestrial biogenic monoterpene emissions, the first one based on the short-term volatilization of monoterpenes, as commonly used for temperature-dependent emissions, and the second one based on long-term production of monoterpenes (linked to photosynthesis) combined with emissions from storage, were compared and evaluated with measurements from a Ponderosa pine plantation (Blodgett Forest, California). The measurements were used to parameterize the long-term storage of monoterpenes, which takes place in specific storage organs and which determines the temporal distribution of the emissions over the year. The difference in assumptions between the first (emission-based) method and the second (production-based) method, which causes a difference in upscaling from instantaneous to daily emissions, requires roughly a doubling of emission capacities to bridge the gap to production capacities. The sensitivities to changes in temperature and light were tested for the new methods, the temperature sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the short-term temperature dependent algorithm.</p>
2007
[1503] Holzinger, R.., D.. B. Millet, B.. Williams, A.. Lee, N.. Kreisberg, S.. V. Hering, J.. Jimenez, J.. D. Allan, D.. R. Worsnop, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia", Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 112, 2007.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007599
Abstract
<p>We report the detection of a class of related oxygenated compounds by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) that have rarely or never been observed as a group using in situ instrumentation. Measurements were made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) 2004 in Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia. The detected class of compounds discussed here includes acetic acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, tentatively identified formic acid and hydroxyacetone, and unidentified compounds detected at mass to charge ratios 85, 87, 99, 101, 113, 115, and 129. Typical concentrations were 800, 2500, 450, 700, 85, 25, 50, 50, 60, 35, 20, and 25 ppt, respectively. The uniqueness of this class of compounds is illustrated by showing they were poorly related to trace gases found in the US outflow, local pollution, primary biogenic emissions and other oxygenated compounds such as acetone, methanol, and MEK measured by other in situ instrumentation. On the other hand these oxidized volatile organic compounds were related to chemical species in aerosols and their abundance was high during nucleation events. Thus they likely are gas phase species that are formed in parallel to biogenic secondary organic aerosol production. We clearly show these compounds do not originate from local sources. We also show these compounds match the oxidation products of isoprene observed in smog chamber studies, and we therefore suggest they must be mainly produced by oxidation of biogenic precursor compounds.</p>
2006
[1499] Varutbangkul, V.., F.. J. Brechtel, R.. Bahreini, N.. L. Ng, M.. D. Keywood, J.. H. Kroll, R.. C. Flagan, J.. H. Seinfeld, A.. Lee, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 6, pp. 2367–2388, Jun, 2006.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Hygroscopicity.pdf
Abstract
<p>A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8) is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH&nbsp;5%). Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (&nbsp;50% RH). Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA), we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic), and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic). All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09&ndash;1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01&ndash;1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06&ndash;1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg) in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or &quot;ZSR&quot; approach) and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different HTDMA-classified diameters agree with each other to varying degrees. Comparing growth factors from different precursors, we find that GForg is inversely proportional to the precursor molecular weight and SOA yield, which is likely a result of the fact that higher-molecular weight precursors tend to produce larger and less hygroscopic oxidation products.</p>
[1501] Holzinger, R.., A.. Lee, M.. McKay, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Seasonal variability of monoterpene emission factors for a ponderosa pine plantation in California", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 6, pp. 1267–1274, Apr, 2006.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/seasonal.pdf
Abstract
<p>Monoterpene fluxes have been measured over an 11 month period from June 2003 to April 2004. During all seasons ambient air temperature was the environmental factor most closely related to the measured emission rates. The monoterpene flux was modeled using a basal emission rate multiplied by an exponential function of a temperature, following the typical practice for modelling temperature dependent biogenic emissions. A basal emission of 1.0 μmol h&minus;1 m&minus;2 (at 30&deg;C, based on leaf area) and a temperature dependence (β) of 0.12&deg;C&minus;1 reproduced measured summer emissions well but underestimated spring and winter measured emissions by 60&ndash;130%. The total annual monoterpene emission may be underestimated by &nbsp;50% when using a model optimized to reproduce monoterpene emissions in summer. The long term dataset also reveals an indirect connection between non-stomatal ozone and monoterpene flux beyond the dependence on temperature that has been shown for both fluxes.</p>

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
Link

J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
Link

W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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