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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Found 19 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Yeretzian, Chahan  [Clear All Filters]
2014
[1526] Gloess, A. N., A. Vietri, F. Wieland, S. Smrke, B. Schönbächler, J. A. Sanchez Lopez, S. Petrozzi, S. Bongers, T. Koziorowski, and C. Yeretzian, "Evidence of different flavour formation dynamics by roasting coffee from different origins: On-line analysis with PTR-ToF-{MS}", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Feb, 2014.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380614000657
Abstract
<p>Coffees from different origins were roasted to different roast degrees and along varying time temperature roasting profiles. The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during roasting was analyzed on-line by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Coffee samples were Coffea arabica from Colombia, Guatemala (Antigua La Ceiba), Ethiopia (Yirga Cheffe, Djimmah) and Coffea canephora var. robusta from Indonesia (Malangsari). The roasting profiles ranged from high temperature short time (HTST) to low temperature long time (LTLT) roasting, and from medium to dark roast degree. The release dynamics of the on-line monitored VOCs differed for the different coffees and showed a strong modulation with the time&ndash;temperature roasting profile. While for Guatemalan coffee the formation of VOCs started relatively early in the roasting process, the VOC formation started much later in the case of Yirga Cheffe and Malangsari. Off-line analysis of the coffee brew augmented the measurements. These included headspace solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS SPME GC/MS), content of total solids, chlorogenic acids, caffeine, total polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu), organic acids (ion chromatography), titratable acidity and pH. Some general trends, irrespective of the coffee origin, were observed, such as an increase in pH when going from an HTST to an LTLT profile or from a medium to dark roast degree. Furthermore, a decrease of total headspace intensity was observed from an HTST to an LTLT roasting profile. In general, the changes of the time temperature roasting profiles and/or the roast degree influenced the intensity of the respective coffee constituents as well as their relative composition differently for different coffee origins.</p>
[1705] Sánchez-López, J. A., R. Zimmermann, and C. Yeretzian, "Insight into the time-resolved extraction of aroma compounds during espresso coffee preparation: online monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS.", Anal Chem, vol. 86, pp. 11696–11704, Dec, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac502992k
Abstract
<p>Using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigated the extraction dynamic of 95 ion traces in real time (time resolution = 1 s) during espresso coffee preparation. Fifty-two of these ions were tentatively identified. This was achieved by online sampling of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in close vicinity to the coffee flow, at the exit of the extraction hose of the espresso machine (single serve capsules). Ten replicates of six different single serve coffee types were extracted to a final weight between 20-120 g, according to the recommended cup size of the respective coffee capsule (Ristretto, Espresso, and Lungo), and analyzed. The results revealed considerable differences in the extraction kinetics between compounds, which led to a fast evolution of the volatile profiles in the extract flow and consequently to an evolution of the final aroma balance in the cup. Besides exploring the time-resolved extraction dynamics of VOCs, the dynamic data also allowed the coffees types (capsules) to be distinguished from one another. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed full separation between the coffees types. The methodology developed provides a fast and simple means of studying the extraction dynamics of VOCs and differentiating between different coffee types.</p>
2013
[Gloess2013a] Gloess, A. N., A. Vietri, S. Bongers, T. Koziorowski, and C. Yeretzian, "On-line Analysis of the Coffee Roasting Process with PTR-ToF-MS: Evidence of Different Flavor Formation Dynamics for Different Coffee Varieties", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 166, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Gloess2013] Gloess, A. N., M. Wellinger, B. Schoenbaechler, F. Wieland, C. Lindinger, and C. Yeretzian, "Predicting the Sensory Profiles of Coffee based on PTR-ToF-MS and GC-MS Measurements", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 54, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Yeretzian2013] Yeretzian, C., A. N. Gloess, B. Schoenbaechler, M. Wellinger, A. Neff, and F. Wieland, "Recent Applications of PTR-ToF-MS in Coffee Research", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 67, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
2012
[Wieland2012] Wieland, F., A. N. Gloess, M. Keller, A. Wetzel, S. Schenker, and C. Yeretzian, "Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile", Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, vol. 402, no. 8: Springer, pp. 2531–2543, 2012.
Link: http://www.springerlink.com/index/E5415T1715865364.pdf
Abstract
A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.
2011
[Biasioli2011] Biasioli, F., C. Yeretzian, T. D. Märk, J. Dewulf, and H. Van Langenhove, "Direct-injection mass spectrometry adds the time dimension to (B) VOC analysis", TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 30, no. 7: Elsevier, pp. 1003–1017, 2011.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165993611001269
Abstract
In the past decade, we have witnessed rapid development of direct-injection mass spectrometric (DIMS) technologies that combine ever-improving mass and time resolution with high sensitivity and robustness. Here, we review some of the most significant DIMS technologies, which have been applied to rapid monitoring and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biogenic VOCS (BVOCs). They include MS-e-noses, atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and selected ion-flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). DIMS-based MS-e-noses provide the possibility to screen large sample sets and may yield rich analytical information. APCI is a widespread ionization method and pioneered DIMS in environmental and flavor-release applications. SIFT-MS and PTR-MS allow better control of precursor-ion generation and hence of the ionization process. SIFT-MS puts the focus on control of the ionization process, while PTR-MS does so on sensitivity. Most (B)VOCs of interest can be efficiently detected and often identified by DIMS, thanks also to the possibility of switching between different precursor ions and the recent realization of time-of-flight-based equipments. Finally, we give selected examples of applications for each of the key technologies, including research in food-quality control (MS-e-nose), flavor release (APCI), environmental sciences (PTR-MS) and health sciences (SIFT-MS).
[Biasioli2011a] Biasioli, F., F. Gasperi, C. Yeretzian, and T. D. Maerk, "PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology", TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 30, no. 7: Elsevier, pp. 968–977, 2011.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165993611001233
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biogenic VOCs (BVOCs), in particular, are a major topic in food science and technology. They play an important role in the perception of odor and flavor and, thus, in food appreciation. Their fast, non-invasive detection helps to control product quality and to monitor fundamental and industrial processes. Furthermore, there is increasing concern about the impact of VOCs and BVOCs from food production on our environment and health. In this contribution, we discuss food-related applications of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), an emerging technique that allows direct, fast, sensitive monitoring of VOCs. After introducing the principles of PTR-MS, we review its applications in food science and technology, highlighting its capabilities from using complete mass spectra as characteristic fingerprints all the way to identifying and quantifying single compounds in a complex food matrix. We end with a description of fundamental studies from food sciences and outline new opportunities offered by recent technological advances.
2010
[Yeretzian2010] Yeretzian, C., A. Glöss, S. Petrozzi, L. D'Ambrosio, K. Knöpfli-Lengweiler, F. Wieland, A. Fridolin Wild, and R. Anliker, "The smell of coffee–an analytical perspective", , 2010.
Link: http://www.icbc.zhaw.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/life_sciences/_Institute_und_Zentren/icbc/Weiterbildung/CAS_Coffee/Medien/2010/2010-09-01-GC-MS.pdf
Abstract
Within the last century, coffee has become one of the world’s most popular beverages and represents a major economic factor for many coffee-producing countries and a significant business sector in consuming countries. The success of this fascinating brew has been overwhelming and its future seems even more exciting1,2. The ever transforming landscape of coffee-shops and coffee-houses, the various trends and fads in the growing speciality coffee sector, the mounting awareness about origins, the steady innovations in the coffee machine sector and last but not least, the rising media-hype around the Barista-scene are all just the tip of the iceberg for a steadily growing coffee-lover community and an astonishingly recession-resistant industry
2008
[Lindinger2008] Lindinger, C., D. Labbe, P. Pollien, A. Rytz, M. A. Juillerat, C. Yeretzian, and I. Blank, "When machine tastes coffee: instrumental approach to predict the sensory profile of espresso coffee.", Anal Chem, vol. 80, no. 5: Nestlé Research Center, Vers-Chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. christian.lindinger@rdls.nestle.com, pp. 1574–1581, Mar, 2008.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac702196z
Abstract
A robust and reproducible model was developed to predict the sensory profile of espresso coffee from instrumental headspace data. The model is derived from 11 different espresso coffees and validated using 8 additional espressos. The input of the model consists of (i) sensory profiles from a trained panel and (ii) on-line proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) data. The experimental PTR-MS conditions were designed to simulate those for the sensory evaluation. Sixteen characteristic ion traces in the headspace were quantified by PTR-MS, requiring only 2 min of headspace measurement per espresso. The correlation is based on a knowledge-based standardization and normalization of both datasets that selectively extracts differences in the quality of samples, while reducing the impact of variations on the overall intensity of coffees. This work represents a significant progress in terms of correlation of sensory with instrumental results exemplified on coffee.
2005
[Lindinger2005] Lindinger, C., P. Pollien, S. Ali, C. Yeretzian, I. Blank, and T. Maerk, "Unambiguous identification of volatile organic compounds by proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry coupled with GC/MS.", Anal Chem, vol. 77, no. 13: Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland., pp. 4117–4124, Jul, 2005.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac0501240
Abstract
Interest in on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is increasing, as sensitive, compact, and affordable direct inlet mass spectrometers are becoming available. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) distinguishes itself by its high sensitivity (low ppt range), high time resolution (200 ms), little ionization-induced fragmentation, and ionization efficiency independent of the compound to be analyzed. Yet, PTR-MS has a shortcoming. It is a one-dimensional technique that characterizes compounds only via their mass, which is not sufficient for positive identification. Here, we introduce a technical and analytical extension of PTR-MS, which removes this shortcoming, while preserving its salient and unique features. Combining separation of VOCs by gas chromatography (GC) with simultaneous and parallel detection of the GC effluent by PTR-MS and electron impact MS, an unambiguous interpretation of complex PTR-MS spectra becomes feasible. This novel development is discussed on the basis of characteristic performance parameters, such as resolution, linear range, and detection limit. The recently developed drift tube with a reduced reaction volume is crucial to exploit the full potential of the setup. We illustrate the performance of the novel setup by analyzing a complex food system.
2003
[Yeretzian2003] Yeretzian, C., A. Jordan, and W. Lindinger, "Analysing the headspace of coffee by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 223: Elsevier, pp. 115–139, 2003.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380602007856
Abstract
An extensive analysis of the headspace (HS) of coffee brew using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) is presented. In particular, we present a set of methods that link mass spectral peaks, as observed in PTR-MS, to chemical compounds in the HS of coffee. Combining all this information, a tentative assignment and rough quantification of liquid coffee HS is presented. Coffee was chosen because it contains a large number of chemically diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs), representing a challenging system for on-line analysis by PTR-MS.
[Mayr2003b] Mayr, D., T. Maerk, W. Lindinger, H. Brevard, and C. Yeretzian, "Breath-by-breath analysis of banana aroma by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 223: Elsevier, pp. 743–756, 2003.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380602009673
Abstract
We report on the in vivo breath-by-breath analysis of volatiles released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose, nosespace (NS), is directly introduced into a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles are monitored on-line. These include isopentyl and isobutyl acetate, two characteristic odour compounds of ripe banana, and 2E-hexenal and hexanal, compounds typical of unripe banana. Comparing the NS with the headspace (HS) profile, two differences are outlined. First, NS concentrations of some compounds are increased, compared to the HS, while others are decreased. This indicates that the in-mouth situation has characteristics of its own—mastication, mixing/dilution with saliva, temperature and pH—which modify the aroma relative to an HS aroma. Second, we discuss the temporal evolution of the NS. While 2E-hexenal and hexanal steadily increase in the NS during mastication of unripe banana, no such evolution is observed in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while eating ripe banana. Furthermore, ripe banana shows high VOC concentrations in the swallow breath in contrast to unripe banana.
[Roberts2003] Roberts, D. D., P. Pollien, N. Antille, C. Lindinger, and C. Yeretzian, "Comparison of nosespace, headspace, and sensory intensity ratings for the evaluation of flavor absorption by fat.", J Agric Food Chem, vol. 51, no. 12: Nestlé Research Center, P.O. Box 44, Vers-Chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. dahlroberts@yahoo.com, pp. 3636–3642, Jun, 2003.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026230+
Abstract
The goal of this study was to better understand the correspondence between sensory perception and in-nose compound concentration. Five aroma compounds at three different concentrations increasing by factors of 4 were added to four matrixes (water, skim milk, 2.7% fat milk, and 3.8% fat milk). These were evaluated by nosespace analysis with detection by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), using five panelists. These same panelists evaluated the perceived intensity of each compound in the matrixes at the three concentrations. PTR-MS quantification found that the percent released from an aqueous solution swallowed immediately was between 0.1 and 0.6%, depending on the compound. The nosespace and sensory results showed the expected effect of fat on release, where lipophilic compounds showed reductions in release as fat content increases. The effect is less than that observed in headspace studies. A general correlation between nosespace concentration and sensory intensity ratings was found. However, examples of perceptual masking were found where higher fat milks showed reductions in aroma compound intensity ratings, even if the nosespace concentrations were the same.
[Karl2003] Karl, T., C. Yeretzian, A. Jordan, and W. Lindinger, "Dynamic measurements of partition coefficients using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS)", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 223: Elsevier, pp. 383–395, 2003.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380602009272
Abstract
Liquid–gas partition coefficients (HLC) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water–air systems are determined using a novel dynamic approach by coupling a stripping cell directly to a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR–MS). Two complementary set-ups are evaluated, one suited for determining HLCs of highly volatile compounds (<10 M/atm), the second adapted for medium to low volatile compounds (∼10–1000 M/atm). We validated the method using 2-butanone, investigated the temperature dependence of various HLCs and applied the stripping technique to a series of VOCs. Compared to alternative state-of-the-art techniques the present approach has the advantage of being simple, fast and less prone to artefacts. Furthermore, it allows to quantify volatile compounds in the headspace without calibration or addition of standards.
[Pollien2003b] Pollien, P., A. Jordan, W. Lindinger, and C. Yeretzian, "Liquid–air partitioning of volatile compounds in coffee: dynamic measurements using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 228, no. 1: Elsevier, pp. 69–80, 2003.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380603001970
Abstract
Recently we introduced a dynamic approach to determine Henry’s law constants (HLCs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water, and applied it to a series organic compounds dissolved in pure water. Here, we first discuss a further development of the original approach such that it can be applied to complex liquid food systems (coffee). Second, we examine the impact of non-volatile constituents on the HLC. More specifically, we evaluate the impact of non-volatile coffee constituents on the HLC of 2-methylpropanal, 3- and 2-methylbutanal, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate. Finally, we demonstrate that the concentration on the VOC in solution does not affect the HLC, over the investigated concentration range of 10−4 to 10 ppm.
[Pollien2003] Pollien, P., C. Lindinger, C. Yeretzian, and I. Blank, "Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, a tool for on-line monitoring of acrylamide formation in the headspace of maillard reaction systems and processed food.", Anal Chem, vol. 75, no. 20: Nestle Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland., pp. 5488–5494, Oct, 2003.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac0344586
Abstract
The formation of acrylamide was measured in real time during thermal treatment (120-170 degrees C) of potato as well as in Maillard model systems composed of asparagine and reducing sugars, such as fructose and glucose. This was achieved by on-line monitoring of acrylamide released into the headspace of the samples using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Unambiguous identification of acrylamide by PTR-MS was accomplished by gas chromatography coupled simultaneously to electron-impact MS and PTR-MS. The PTR-MS ion signal at m/z 72 was shown to be exclusively due to protonated acrylamide obtained without fragmentation. In model Maillard systems, the formation of acrylamide from asparagine was favored with increasing temperature and preferably in the presence of fructose. Maximum signal intensities in the headspace were obtained after approximately 2 min at 170 degrees C, whereas 6-7 min was required at 150 degrees C. Similarly, the level of acrylamide released into the headspace during thermal treatment of potato was positively correlated to temperature.
2002
[Yeretzian2002] Yeretzian, C., A. Jordan, R. Badoud, and W. Lindinger, "From the green bean to the cup of coffee: investigating coffee roasting by on-line monitoring of volatiles", European Food Research and Technology, vol. 214, no. 2: Springer, pp. 92–104, 2002.
Link: http://www.springerlink.com/index/1t5671mp5tu83meu.pdf
Abstract
A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for fast-response measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during leg 2 (4 March–23 March) of the INDOEX 1999 cruise. In this paper, we present a first overview of the distribution of acetonitrile, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde over a broad spatial extent of the Indian Ocean (19°N–13°S, 67°E–75°E). The prevailing atmospheric circulation during the winter monsoon transported polluted air from India and the Middle East over the Indian Ocean to meet pristine southern hemispheric air at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The chemical composition of air parcels changed according to their geographic origin, which was traced by backtrajectory analysis. The relative abundance of acetonitrile, a selective tracer for biomass burning, to that of carbon monoxide, a general tracer for incomplete combustion, reflected the signature of biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion. This indicated a strong biomass burning impact in W-India, mixed pollution sources in NE-India, and the dominance of fossil fuel combustion in the Middle East. Biomass burning impacted air was rich in methanol (0.70–1.60 ppbv), while acetone (0.80–2.40 ppbv) and acetaldehyde (0.25–0.50 ppbv) were elevated in all continental air masses. Pollution levels decreased toward the ITCZ resulting in minima for methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde of 0.50, 0.45, and 0.12 ppbv, respectively. The observed abundances suggest that there are unidentified sources of acetone and acetaldehyde in biomass burning impacted air masses and in remote marine air.
2001
[Fay2001] Fay, L. B., C. Yeretzian, and I. Blank, "Novel mass spectrometry methods in flavour analysis", CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 5: Swiss Chemical Society, pp. 429–434, 2001.
Link: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/scs/chimia/2001/00000055/00000005/art00009
Abstract
Flavour research is a demanding domain in terms of analytical methodology as key odorants usually occur in trace amounts, often embedded in extracts containing volatile compounds at much higher concentrations. Since its early days, GC-MS has been a key tool in flavour laboratories enabling characterisation of thousands of volatile components in food products. However, as flavour chemists delve deeper into the understanding of flavour generation and delivery, there is a need for more powerful methodologies adapted to their specific needs. This paper will present two techniques that allow flavour separation and characterisation, namely GC-TOFMS and MS/MS. Moreover, APCI-MS, PTR-MS and REMPI-TOFMS will be discussed as they enable direct investigation of volatile compounds without any chromatographic step, thus studying release of flavour compounds during food processing or food consumption.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
Link

J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
Link

W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
Link

 

Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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