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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Publications

Found 5 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Karl, T.  [Clear All Filters]
2015
[1763] Kaser, L.., T.. Karl, B.. Yuan, R.. L. Mauldin, C.. A. Cantrell, A.. B. Guenther, E.. G. Patton, A.. J. Weinheimer, C.. Knote, J.. Orlando, et al., "Chemistry-turbulence interactions and mesoscale variability influence the cleansing efficiency of the atmosphere", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 42, pp. 10894–10903, Dec, 2015.
Link: http://n2t.net/ark:/85065/d7gq709d
Abstract
<p>The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere and the primary sink for isoprene, the dominant volatile organic compound emitted by vegetation. Recent research on the atmospheric oxidation capacity in isoprene-dominated environments has suggested missing radical sources leading to significant overestimation of the lifetime of isoprene. Here we report, for the first time, a comprehensive experimental budget of isoprene in the planetary boundary layer based on airborne flux measurements along with in situ OH observations in the Southeast and Central U.S. Our findings show that surface heterogeneity of isoprene emissions lead to a physical separation of isoprene and OH resulting in an effective slowdown in the chemistry. Depending on surface heterogeneity, the intensity of segregation (Is) could locally slow down isoprene chemistry up to 30%. The effect of segregated reactants in the planetary boundary layer on average has an influence on modeled OH radicals that is comparable to that of recently proposed radical recycling mechanisms.</p>
2014
[1516] Misztal, P.. K., T.. Karl, R.. Weber, H.. H. Jonsson, A.. B. Guenther, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 14, pp. 7965–8013, Mar, 2014.
Link: http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/14/7965/2014/acpd-14-7965-2014.html
Abstract
<p>Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over 10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate &quot;instantaneous&quot; fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using &quot;racetrack&quot; profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 &plusmn; 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m&minus;2 h&minus;1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.</p>
2013
[1514] Karl, T.., P.. K. Misztal, H.. H. Jonsson, S.. Shertz, A.. H. Goldstein, and A.. B. Guenther, "Airborne Flux Measurements of BVOCs above Californian Oak Forests: Experimental Investigation of Surface and Entrainment Fluxes, OH Densities, and Damköhler Numbers", J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 70, pp. 3277–3287, Oct, 2013.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Karl et al 2013 JAS.pdf
Abstract
<p>Airborne flux measurements of isoprene were performed over the Californian oak belts surrounding the Central Valley. The authors demonstrate for the first time 1) the feasibility of airborne eddy covariance measurements of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds; 2) the effect of chemistry on the vertical transport of reactive species, such as isoprene; and 3) the applicability of wavelet analysis to estimate regional fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds. These flux measurements demonstrate that instrumentation operating at slower response times (e.g., 1&ndash;5 s) can still be used to determine eddy covariance fluxes in the mixed layer above land, where typical length scales of 0.5&ndash;3 km were observed. Flux divergence of isoprene measured in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is indicative of OH densities in the range of 4&ndash;7 &times; 106 molecules per cubic centimeter and allows extrapolation of airborne fluxes to the surface with Damköhler numbers (ratio between the mixing time scale and the chemical time scale) in the range of 0.3&ndash;0.9. Most of the isoprene is oxidized in the PBL with entrainment fluxes of about 10% compared to the corresponding surface fluxes. Entrainment velocities of 1&ndash;10 cm s&minus;1 were measured. The authors present implications for parameterizing PBL schemes of reactive species in regional and global models.</p>
2004
[Kuster2004] Kuster, W.. C., B.. T. Jobson, T.. Karl, D.. Riemer, E.. Apel, P.. D. Goldan, and F.. C. Fehsenfeld, "Intercomparison of volatile organic carbon measurement techniques and data at La Porte during the TexAQS2000 Air Quality Study.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 38, no. 1: Aeronomy Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, R/AL7, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA. bkuster@al.noaa.gov, pp. 221–228, Jan, 2004.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es034710r
Abstract
The Texas Air Quality Study 2000 (TexAQS2000) investigated the photochemical production of ozone and the chemistry of related precursors and reaction products in the vicinity of Houston, TX. The colocation of four instruments for the measurement of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) allowed a unique opportunity for the intercomparison of the different in-situ measuring techniques. The instruments included three gas chromatographs, each with a different type of detector, and a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) with each system designed to measure a different suite of VOCs. Correlation plots and correlation statistics are presented for species measured by more than one of these instruments. The GC instruments were all in agreement to within 10-20% (slope) with coefficients of variation (r2) of > or = 0.85. The PTR-MS agreement with other instruments was more dependent on species with some very good agreements (r2 values of approximately 0.95 for some aromatics), but isoprene, acetaldehyde and propene were substantially less highly correlated (0.55 < r2 < 0.80). At least part of these differences were undoubtedly due to the timing of sample acquisition in an environment in which VOC levels changed very rapidly on both quantitative and temporal scales.
2002
[Karl2002a] Karl, T.., R.. Fall, T.. N. Rosenstiel, P.. Prazeller, B.. Larsen, G.. Seufert, and W.. Lindinger, "On-line analysis of the (13)CO(2) labeling of leaf isoprene suggests multiple subcellular origins of isoprene precursors.", Planta, vol. 215, no. 6: Institut fuer Ionenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck Austria. tomkarl@ucar.edu, pp. 894–905, Oct, 2002.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00516.x/full
Abstract
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most abundant biogenic hydrocarbon released from vegetation, and there is continuing interest in understanding its biosynthesis from photosynthetic precursors in leaf chloroplasts. We used on-line proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to observe the kinetics of (13)C-labeling of isoprene following exposure to (13)CO(2) and then the loss of (13)C after a return to normal (12)CO(2) in oak ( Quercus agrifolia Nee) and cottonwood (Populus deltoides Barr.) leaves. Assignments of labeled isoprene species were verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For the first time, it was possible to observe the half-lives of individually (13)C-labeled isoprene species during these transitions, and to trace some of the label to a C3 fragment that contained the two isoprene carbons derived from pyruvate via the deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate (DOXP) pathway. At steady state (under (13)CO(2)), approximately 80% of isoprene carbon was labeled, with fully labeled isoprene as the major species (approx. 60%). The source of the unlabeled C is suggested to be extrachloroplastic, but not from photorespiratory carbon. After a transfer to (12)CO(2), (13)C-labeling persisted in one isoprene carbon for several hours; this persistence was much more pronounced in (i) leaves inhibited by fosmidomycin, a specific inhibitor of the DOXP pathway, and (ii) in sun leaves which have higher ratios of soluble sugars to starch. From the mass 41-44 fragment data, and labeling predicted from the DOXP pathway in chloroplasts, precursors may arise from cytosolic pyruvate/phospho enolpyruvate equivalents transported into the chloroplast; this idea was supported by an indirect measure of pyruvate labeling. Other sources of cytosolic isoprene precursors (i.e. dimethylallyl diphosphate or pentose phosphate) could not be excluded. The data obtained shed light on the half-lives of photosynthetic metabolites, exchanges of carbon between cellular pools, and suggest multiple origins of isoprene precursors in leaves.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
Link

J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
Link

W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
Link

 

Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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