[Rinne2005] "On-line PTR-MS measurements of atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a European boreal forest ecosystem",
Boreal environment research
, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 425–436, 2005.
[Warneke2005] "Online volatile organic compound measurements using a newly developed proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry instrument during New England Air Quality Study–Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2004: performance, intercomparison, a",
Environ Sci Technol
, vol. 39, no. 14: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Aeronomy Laboratory, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA. Carsten.Warneke@noaa.gov, pp. 5390–5397, Jul, 2005.
We have used a newly developed proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) instrument for online trace gas analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the 2004 New England Air Quality Study-Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation study. The PIT-MS instrument uses proton-transfer reactions with H3O+ ions to ionize VOCs, similarto a PTR-MS (proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry) instrument but uses an ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the product ions. The advantages of an ion trap are the improved identification of VOCs and a near 100% duty cycle. During the experiment, the PIT-MS instrument had a detection limit between 0.05 and 0.3 pbbv (S/N = 3 (signal-to-noise ratio)) for 2-min integration time for most tested VOCs. PIT-MS was used for ambient air measurements onboard a research ship and agreed well with a gas chromatography mass spectrometer). The comparison included oxygenated VOCs, aromatic compounds, and others such as isoprene, monoterpenes, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfide. Automated collision-induced dissociation measurements were used to determine the contributions of acetone and propanal to the measured signal at 59 amu; both species are detected at this mass and are thus indistinguishable in conventional PTR-MS.
[Beauchamp2005] "Ozone induced emissions of biogenic VOC from tobacco: relationships between ozone uptake and emission of LOX products",
Plant, Cell & Environment
, vol. 28, no. 10: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1334–1343, 2005.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3) plants exposed to ozone (O3) were investigated using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) to find a quantitative reference for plants’ responses to O3 stress. O3 exposures to illuminated plants induced post-exposure VOC emission bursts. The lag time for the onset of volatile C6 emissions produced within the octadecanoid pathway was found to be inversely proportional to O3 uptake, or more precisely, to the O3 flux density into the plants. In cases of short O3 pulses of identical duration the total amount of these emitted C6 VOC was related to the O3 flux density into the plants, and not to ozone concentrations or dose–response relationships such as AOT 40 values. Approximately one C6 product was emitted per five O3 molecules taken up by the plant. A threshold flux density of O3 inducing emissions of C6 products was found to be (1.6 ± 0.7) × 10−8 mol m−2 s−1.
[Wisthaler2005] "Products of ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated aircraft environment.",
Environ Sci Technol
, vol. 39, no. 13: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark., pp. 4823–4832, Jul, 2005.
We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline), cabin plus ozone, cabin plus soiled T-shirts (surrogates for human occupants), and cabin plus soiled T-shirts plus ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin without T-shirts, at concentrations typically encountered during commercial air travel, increased the mixing ratio (v:v concentration) of detected pollutants from 35 ppb to 80 ppb. Most of this increase was due to the production of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and tentatively identified low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The addition of soiled T-shirts, with no ozone present, increased the mixing ratio of pollutants in the cabin air only slightly, whereas the combination of soiled T-shirts and ozone increased the mixing ratio of detected pollutants to 110 ppb, with more than 20 ppb originating from squalene oxidation products (acetone, 4-oxopentanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one). For the two conditions with ozone present, the more-abundant oxidation products included acetone/propanal (8-20 ppb), formaldehyde (8-10 ppb), nonanal (approximately 6 ppb), 4-oxopentanal (3-7 ppb), acetic acid (approximately 7 ppb), formic acid (approximately 3 ppb), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (0.5-2.5 ppb), as well as compounds tentatively identified as acrolein (0.6-1 ppb) and crotonaldehyde (0.6-0.8 ppb). The odor thresholds of certain products were exceeded. With an outdoor air exchange of 3 h(-1) and a recirculation rate of 20 h(-1), the measured ozone surface removal rate constant was 6.3 h(-1) when T-shirts were not present, compared to 11.4 h(-1) when T-shirts were present.
[Zini2005] "QTL mapping of volatile compounds in ripe apples detected by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry",
, vol. 145, no. 3: Springer, pp. 269–279, 2005.
The availability of genetic linkage maps enables the detection and analysis of QTLs contributing to quality traits of the genotype. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), a relatively novel spectrometric technique, has been applied to measure the headspace composition of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted by apple fruit genotypes of the progeny ‘Fiesta’ × ‘Discovery’. Fruit samples were characterised by their PTR-MS spectra normalised to total area. QTL analysis for all PTR-MS peaks was carried out and 10 genomic regions associated with the peaks at m/z = 28, 43, 57, 61, 103, 115 and 145 were identified (LOD > 2.5). We show that it is possible to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to PTR-MS characterisation of the headspace composition of single whole apple fruits indicating the presence of a link between molecular characterisation and PTR-MS data. We provide tentative information on the metabolites related to the detected QTLs based on available chemical information. A relation between apple skin colour and peaks related to carbonyl compounds was established.
[Karl2005] "Senescing grass crops as regional sources of reactive volatile organic compounds",
Journal of geophysical research
, vol. 110, no. D15: American Geophysical Union, pp. D15302, 2005.
Grass crop species, rice and sorghum, that are widely grown in the southeastern Texas region were analyzed for release of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in simulated leaf-drying/senescence experiments. VOC release was measured by both online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and proton transfer ion trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) methods, and it was demonstrated that these two grass crops release a large variety of oxygenated VOCs upon drying under laboratory conditions primarily from leaves and not from stems. VOC release from paddy rice varieties was much greater than from sorghum, and major VOCs identified by gas chromatography PTR-MS included methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, n-pentanal, methyl propanal, hexenol, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, and trans-2-hexenal. The latter four VOCs, all C6 compounds known to be formed in wounded leaves, were the major volatiles released from drying rice leaves; smaller but substantial amounts of acetaldehyde were observed in all drying experiments. Online detection of VOCs using PIT-MS gave results comparable to those obtained with PTR-MS, and use of PIT-MS with collision-induced dissociation of trapped ions allowed unambiguous determination of the ratios of cis- and trans-hexenals during different phases of drying. As rice is one of the largest harvested crops on a global scale, it is conceivable that during rice senescence releases of biogenic VOCs, especially the reactive C6 wound VOCs, may contribute to an imbalance in regional atmospheric oxidant formation during peak summer/fall ozone formation periods. A county-by-county estimate of the integrated emissions of reactive biogenic VOCs from sorghum and rice production in Texas suggests that these releases are orders of magnitude lower than anthropogenic VOCs in urban areas but also that VOC emissions from rice in southeastern coastal Texas may need to be included in regional air quality assessments during periods of extensive harvesting.
[Gallardo-Escamilla2005] "Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.",
J Dairy Sci
, vol. 88, no. 8: Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland., pp. 2689–2699, Aug, 2005.
To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.
[Lindinger2005] "Unambiguous identification of volatile organic compounds by proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry coupled with GC/MS.",
, vol. 77, no. 13: NestlÃ© Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland., pp. 4117–4124, Jul, 2005.
Interest in on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is increasing, as sensitive, compact, and affordable direct inlet mass spectrometers are becoming available. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) distinguishes itself by its high sensitivity (low ppt range), high time resolution (200 ms), little ionization-induced fragmentation, and ionization efficiency independent of the compound to be analyzed. Yet, PTR-MS has a shortcoming. It is a one-dimensional technique that characterizes compounds only via their mass, which is not sufficient for positive identification. Here, we introduce a technical and analytical extension of PTR-MS, which removes this shortcoming, while preserving its salient and unique features. Combining separation of VOCs by gas chromatography (GC) with simultaneous and parallel detection of the GC effluent by PTR-MS and electron impact MS, an unambiguous interpretation of complex PTR-MS spectra becomes feasible. This novel development is discussed on the basis of characteristic performance parameters, such as resolution, linear range, and detection limit. The recently developed drift tube with a reduced reaction volume is crucial to exploit the full potential of the setup. We illustrate the performance of the novel setup by analyzing a complex food system.
[Pinggera2005] "Urinary acetonitrile concentrations correlate with recent smoking behaviour.",
, vol. 95, no. 3: Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Germar-Michael.Pinggera@uibk.ac.at, pp. 306–309, Feb, 2005.
To assess the concentration of acetonitrile (a saturated aliphatic nitrile) in the urine of habitual cigarette smokers and non-smokers, as exposure to smoke can be measured by monitoring ambient air or by in vivo tests, but acetonitrile measured in exhaled breath is reportedly a quantitative marker of recent smoking behaviour.The study included 101 volunteers (57 men and 44 women, mean age 49 years). An absence of urinary tract infection on urine analysis or clinical history was mandatory. The subjects were classified into five groups, i.e. a control group of non-smokers and four groups according to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Urine samples were stored at 8 degrees C until acetonitrile was measured, within 24 h of collection, using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Each measurement was repeated at least 10 times, and the mean used for statistical analysis.The mean (sd) acetonitrile level in the urine of 46 non-smokers was 3.74 (1.78) parts per billion volatile (ppbv). The concentration of acetonitrile increased with the number of cigarettes smoked daily, the highest concentration being in the subgroup of 13 very heavy smokers (>30 cigarettes/day) with means up to 28.04 (5.38) ppbv.PTR-MS is a quick, noninvasive online method for determining urinary acetonitrile levels, a marker for recent active and passive smoking behaviour, and thus for checking compliance. As smoking has been shown to affect the genesis of bladder cancer, further studies are required to determine the association of acetonitrile with bladder cancer.