[Warneke1999] "Acetone, methanol, and other partially oxidized volatile organic emissions from dead plant matter by abiological processes: Significance for atmospheric HOx chemistry",
Global Biogeochem. Cycles
, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 9–17, 1999.
[Holzinger1999] "Biomass burning as a source of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and hydrogen cyanide",
Geophysical Research Letters
, vol. 26, no. 8: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1161–1164, 1999.
[Fall1999] "Volatile organic compounds emitted after leaf wounding: on-line analysis by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry",
Journal of Geophysical Research
, vol. 104, no. D13: American Geophysical Union, pp. 15963–15, 1999.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols, and hexenyl esters), are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. Here we demonstrate that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements allow direct analysis of the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1–2 s of wounding of aspen leaves and then its disappearance and the appearance of its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols, and hexenyl acetates. Similar results were seen in wounded beech leaves and clover. The emission of hexenal family compounds was proportional to the extent of wounding, was not dependent on light, occurred in attached or detached leaves, and was greatly enhanced as detached leaves dried out. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached drying aspen leaves averaged 500 μg C g−1 (dry leaf weight). Leaf wound compounds were not emitted in a nitrogen atmosphere but were released within seconds of reintroduction of oxygen; this indicates that there are not large pools of hexenyl compounds in leaves. The PTR-MS method also allows the simultaneous detection of less abundant hexanal family VOCs including hexanal, hexanol, and hexyl acetate and VOCs formed in the light (isoprene) or during anoxia (acetaldehyde). PTR-MS may be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, and other physical damage to vegetation, from harvesting of crops, and from senescing leaves.