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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Found 19 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
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2014
[1608] Papurello, D., A. Lanzini, P. Leone, M. Santarelli, and S. Silvestri, "Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.", Waste Manag, vol. 34, pp. 2047–2056, Nov, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.06.017
Abstract
<p>The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding &sim;1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (&sim;1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.</p>
[1515] Park, J.-H.., S.. Fares, R.. Weber, and A.. H. Goldstein, "Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux-gradient similarity methods", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, pp. 231–244, Jan, 2014.
Link: http://nature.berkeley.edu/ahg/pubs/Park et al-acp-14-231-2014.pdf
Abstract
<p>The Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, during summer 2009. We deployed a proton transfer reaction&ndash;quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) to measure fluxes and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Eighteen ion species, including the major BVOC expected at the site, were measured sequentially at 5 heights to observe their vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 3 dominant BVOCs methanol, 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes were measured above the canopy by the disjunct eddy covariance (EC) method. Canopy-scale fluxes were also determined by the flux&ndash;gradient similarity method (K-theory). A universal K (Kuniv) was determined as the mean of individual K&#39;s calculated from the measured fluxes divided by vertical gradients for methanol, MBO, and monoterpenes. This Kuniv was then multiplied by the gradients of each observed ion species to compute their fluxes. The flux&ndash;gradient similarity method showed very good agreement with the disjunct EC method. Fluxes are presented for all measured species and compared to historical measurements from the same site, and used to test emission algorithms used to model fluxes at the regional scale. MBO was the dominant emission observed, followed by methanol, monoterpenes, acetone, and acetaldehyde. The flux&ndash;gradient similarity method is shown to be tenable, and we recommend its use, especially in experimental conditions when fast measurement of BVOC species is not available.</p>
2013
[Karl2013] Karl, T., A. Hansel, L. Cappellin, L. Kaser, I. Herdlinger-Blatt, and W. Jud, "BVOC measurements based on NO+ ionization", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 84, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
2012
[Righettoni2012] Righettoni, M., A. Tricoli, S. Gass, A. Schmid, A. Amann, and S. E. Pratsinis, "Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors.", Anal Chim Acta, vol. 738: Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland., pp. 69–75, Aug, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2012.06.002
Abstract
Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO(3) nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (?20ppb) with short response (10-15s) and recovery times (35-70s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.
2011
[1507] Fares, S., D. R. Gentner, J-H. Park, E. Ormeno, J. Karlik, and A. H. Goldstein, "Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California", Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, pp. 4557–4568, Sep, 2011.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.066
Abstract
<p>Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. &#39;Parent Navel&#39;, Citrus limon var. &#39;Meyer&#39;, Citrus reticulata var. &#39;W. Murcott&#39; and &#39;Clementine&#39;). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene emissions among all Citrus species are dominated by ocimenes, β-caryophyllene, and linalool, respectively. In addition to utilizing our reported emission factors in BVOC emission models, we recommend that future BVOC emission models consider additional emissions from flowering and harvest, which occur seasonally and may have a significant impact on regional atmospheric chemistry.</p>
[Ghirardo2011] Ghirardo, A., J. Gutknecht, I. Zimmer, N. Brueggemann, and J-P. Schnitzler, "Biogenic volatile organic compound and respiratory CO2 emissions after 13C-labeling: online tracing of C translocation dynamics in poplar plants.", PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 2: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany., pp. e17393, 2011.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017393
Abstract
Globally plants are the primary sink of atmospheric CO(2), but are also the major contributor of a large spectrum of atmospheric reactive hydrocarbons such as terpenes (e.g. isoprene) and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). The prediction of plant carbon (C) uptake and atmospheric oxidation capacity are crucial to define the trajectory and consequences of global environmental changes. To achieve this, the biosynthesis of BVOC and the dynamics of C allocation and translocation in both plants and ecosystems are important.We combined tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for studying isoprene biosynthesis and following C fluxes within grey poplar (Populus x canescens) saplings. This was achieved by feeding either (13)CO(2) to leaves or (13)C-glucose to shoots via xylem uptake. The translocation of (13)CO(2) from the source to other plant parts could be traced by (13)C-labeled isoprene and respiratory (13)CO(2) emission.In intact plants, assimilated (13)CO(2) was rapidly translocated via the phloem to the roots within 1 hour, with an average phloem transport velocity of 20.3 ± 2.5 cm h(-1). (13)C label was stored in the roots and partially reallocated to the plants' apical part one day after labeling, particularly in the absence of photosynthesis. The daily C loss as BVOC ranged between 1.6% in mature leaves and 7.0% in young leaves. Non-isoprene BVOC accounted under light conditions for half of the BVOC C loss in young leaves and one-third in mature leaves. The C loss as isoprene originated mainly (76-78%) from recently fixed CO(2), to a minor extent from xylem-transported sugars (7-11%) and from photosynthetic intermediates with slower turnover rates (8-11%).We quantified the plants' C loss as respiratory CO(2) and BVOC emissions, allowing in tandem with metabolic analysis to deepen our understanding of ecosystem C flux.
[1587] Hörtnagl, L., I. Bamberger, M. Graus, T. M. Ruuskanen, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Müller, A. Hansel, and G. Wohlfahrt, "Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland.", J Geophys Res Biogeosci, vol. 116, Sep, 2011.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011jg001641
Abstract
<p>Methanol (CH3OH) fluxes were quantified above a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method using 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer and methanol volume mixing ratios measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). During (undisturbed) mature and growing phases methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m(-2) s(-1), which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature. Management events were found to represent the largest perturbations of methanol exchange at the studied grassland ecosystem: Peak emissions of 144.5 nmol m(-2) s(-1) were found during/after cutting of the meadow reflecting the wounding of the plant material and subsequent depletion of the leaf internal aqueous methanol pools. After the application of organic fertilizer, elevated methanol emissions of up to 26.7 nmol m(-2) s(-1) were observed, likely reflecting enhanced microbial activity associated with the applied manure. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed air temperature and radiation as the dominant abiotic controls, jointly explaining 47 % and 70 % of the variability in half-hourly and daily methanol fluxes. In contrast to published leaf-level laboratory studies, the surface conductance and the daily change in the amount of green plant area, used as ecosystem-scale proxies for stomatal conductance and growth, respectively, were found to exert only minor biotic controls on methanol exchange.</p>
[Herbig2011] Herbig, J.., M.. Seger, I.. Kohl, K.. Winkler, H.. Jamnig, A.. Zabernigg, C.. Baumgartner, and A.. Hansel, "Breath Analysis with PTR-MS: More breath markers for lung cancer", 5th International PTR-MS Conference on Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications, pp. 31-33, 2011.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_5.pdf
Abstract
In a clinical screening study we have measured several hundred subjects using real-time breath analysis with PTR-MS. We present and discuss potential breath markers for lung cancer with a critical view on the data analysis. The presented problems and solutions are also applicable to other analytical methods used in breath analysis.
[Mair2011] Mair, V.., J.. Dunkl, A.. Hansel, and I.. Kohl, "Breath gas analysis by PTR-TOF-MS in a clinical setting", 5th International PTR-MS Conference on Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications, pp. 231, 2011.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_5.pdf
Abstract
Typical clinical (breath analysis) studies take several months to years. Employing a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as an analytical tool for breath analysis, a constant performance of the instrument is essential. Here we report on the longterm performance of a PTR-TOF-MS for the analysis of exhaled breath gas in the frame of a clinical study. Performance data are shown for a period of 7 months. We characterized the sampling procedure, sample storage, and measured sensitivity and detection limit for a set of VOCs with relevance in breath analysis. Over the period of 7 months, we were able to achieve a high mass accuracy and precision in the range of ppm.
2010
[Yuan2010] Yuan, B., Y. Liu, M. Shao, S. Lu, and D. G. Streets, "Biomass burning contributions to ambient VOCs species at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 44, no. 12: State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China., pp. 4577–4582, Jun, 2010.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1003389
Abstract
Ambient VOCs were measured by a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during October 19-November 18, 2008. Biomass burning plumes are identified by using acetonitrile as tracer, and enhancement ratios (ERs) of nine VOCs species relative to acetonitrile are obtained from linear regression analysis and the source-tracer-ratio method. Enhancement ratios determined by the two different methods show good agreement for most VOCs species. Biomass burning contributions are investigated by using the source-tracer-ratio method. Biomass burning contributed 9.5%-17.7% to mixing ratios of the nine VOCs. The estimated biomass burning contributions are compared with local emission inventories. Large discrepancies are observed between our results and the estimates in two emission inventories. Though biomass burning emissions in TRACE-P inventory agree well with our results, the VOCs speciation for aromatic compounds may be not appropriate for Guangdong.
[Bamberger2010] Bamberger, I., L. Hörtnagl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, TM. Ruuskanen, M. Müller, J. Dunkl, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Hansel, "BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland", Biogeosciences, vol. 7, no. 5: Copernicus GmbH, pp. 1413–1424, 2010.
Link: http://www.biogeosciences.net/7/1413/2010/bg-7-1413-2010.pdf
[1585] Bamberger, I.., L.. Hortnagl, R.. Schnitzhofer, M.. Graus, T.. M. Ruuskanen, M.. Muller, J.. Dunkl, G.. Wohlfahrt, and A.. Hansel, "BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland.", Biogeosciences, vol. 7, May, 2010.
Link: http://www.biogeosciences.net/7/1413/2010/bg-7-1413-2010.html
Abstract
<p>Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth&#39;s land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95&times;-0.12, R (2) = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season - with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m(-2) s(-1), methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m(-2) s(-1)). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m(-2) s(-1). In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m(-2) s(-1)), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1)) were detected during/after harvesting.</p>
2009
[Schwarz2009] Schwarz, K.., A.. Pizzini, B.. Arendacká, K.. Zerlauth, W.. Filipiak, A.. Schmid, A.. Dzien, S.. Neuner, M.. Lechleitner, S.. Scholl-Buergi, et al., "Breath acetone-aspects of normal physiology related to age and gender as determined in a PTR-MS study.", J Breath Res, vol. 3, no. 2: Department of Operative Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Breath Research Unit of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Dammstrasse 22, A-6850 Dornbirn, Austria., pp. 027003, Jun, 2009.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/3/2/027003
Abstract
The present study was performed to determine the variations of breath acetone concentrations with age, gender and body-mass index (BMI). Previous investigations were based on a relatively small cohort of subjects (see Turner et al 2006 Physiol. Meas. 27 321-37). Since exhaled breath analysis is affected by considerable variation, larger studies are needed to get reliable information about the correlation of concentrations of volatiles in breath when compared with age, gender and BMI. Mixed expiratory exhaled breath was sampled using Tedlar bags. The concentrations of a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 59, attributed to acetone, were then determined using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Our cohort, consisting of 243 adult volunteers not suffering from diabetes, was divided into two groups: one that fasted overnight prior to sampling (215 volunteers) and the other without a dietary control (28 volunteers). In addition, we considered a group of 44 healthy children (5-11 years old).The fasted subjects' concentrations of acetone ranged from 177 ppb to 2441 ppb, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 628 ppb; in the group without a dietary control, the subjects' concentrations ranged from 281 ppb to 1246 ppb with an overall GM of 544 ppb. We found no statistically significant shift between the distributions of acetone levels in the breath of males and females in the fasted group (the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test yielded p = 0.0923, the medians being 652 ppb and 587 ppb). Similarly, there did not seem to be a difference between the acetone levels of males and females in the group without a dietary control. Aging was associated with a slight increase of acetone in the fasted females; in males the increase was not statistically significant. Compared with the adults (a merged group), our group of children (5-11 years old) showed lower concentrations of acetone (p < 0.001), with a median of 263 ppb. No correlation was found between the acetone levels and BMI in adults. Our results extend those of Turner et al's (2006 Physiol. Meas. 27 321-37), who analyzed the breath of 30 volunteers (without a dietary control) by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. They reported a positive correlation with age (but without statistical significance in their cohort, with p = 0.82 for males and p = 0.45 for females), and, unlike us, arrived at a p-value of 0.02 for the separation of males and females with respect to acetone concentrations. Our median acetone concentration for children (5-11 years) coincides with the median acetone concentration of young adults (17-19 years) reported by Spanel et al (2007 J. Breath Res. 1 026001).
2008
[Herbig2008] Herbig, J., T. Titzmann, J. Beauchamp, I. Kohl, and A. Hansel, "Buffered end-tidal (BET) sampling-a novel method for real-time breath-gas analysis.", J Breath Res, vol. 2, no. 3: Ionimed Analytik GmbH, Technikerstrasse 21a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria., pp. 037008, Sep, 2008.
Link: http://iopscience.iop.org/1752-7163/2/3/037008/
Abstract
We present a novel method for real-time breath-gas analysis using mass-spectrometric techniques: buffered end-tidal (BET) on-line sampling. BET has several advantages over conventional direct on-line sampling where the subject inhales and exhales through a sampling tube. In our approach, a single exhalation is administered through a tailored tube in which the end-tidal fraction of the breath-gas sample is buffered. This increases sampling time by an order of magnitude to several seconds, improving signal quality and reducing the total measurement time per test subject. Furthermore, only one exhalation per minute is required for sampling and the test subject can otherwise maintain a normal breathing pattern, thereby reducing the risk of hyperventilation. To validate our new BET sampling method we conducted comparative measurements with direct on-line sampling using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. We find excellent agreement in measured acetone and acetonitrile concentrations. High variability observed in breath-by-breath isoprene concentrations is attributed to differences in exhalation depth and influences of hyperventilation on end-tidal concentrations.
[VanRuth2008] Van Ruth, SM., A. Koot, W. Akkermans, N. Araghipour, M. Rozijn, M. Baltussen, A. Wisthaler, TD. Märk, and R. Frankhuizen, "Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS", European Food Research and Technology, vol. 227, no. 1: Springer, pp. 307–317, 2008.
Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00217-007-0724-7
Abstract
The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective samples. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by means of PTR-MS analysis, sensory analysis and classical chemical analysis. Subsequently, partial least square-discriminant analysis models (PLS-DA) were fitted to predict the matrix (butter/butter oil) and the sensory grades of the samples from their PTR-MS data. Using a 10-fold cross-validation scheme, 84% of the samples were successfully classified into butter and butter oil classes. Regarding sensory quality, 89% of the samples were correctly classified. As the milk fats were fairly successfully classified by the combination of PTR-MS and PLS-DA, this combination seems a promising approach with potential applications in quality control and control of regulations.
2006
[Mueller2006] Müller, K., S. Haferkorn, W. Grabmer, A. Wisthaler, A. Hansel, J. Kreuzwieser, C. Cojocariu, H. Rennenberg, and H. Herrmann, "Biogenic carbonyl compounds within and above a coniferous forest in Germany", Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40: Elsevier, pp. 81–91, 2006.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231006003220
Abstract
Diurnal mixing ratios of aldehydes and ketones were investigated during two joint experiments in summer months to identify biogenic contributions from coniferous forests to tropospheric chemistry. In a Norway spruce forest, the diurnal variation of carbonyl compounds was measured at 12 m (in the treetop) and at 24 m (above the canopy). The main findings of the experiment are that acetone (up to 9.1 ppbv), formaldehyde (up to 6.5 ppbv), acetaldehyde (up to 5.5 ppbv) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, up to 1.8 ppbv) were found in highest concentrations. For all major compounds with the exception of MEK, primary emissions are supposed. From α-pinene oxidation, pinonaldehyde was found with its peak concentrations (up to 0.15 ppbv) during the early morning hours. The diurnal variation of concentrations for most other compounds shows maximum concentrations near midday in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) measurements but not for proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) measurements of acetaldehyde and acetone. A clear correlation of carbonyl compound concentration to the radiation intensity and the temperature (R2=0.66) was found. However, formaldehyde did not show distinct diurnal variations. A very high correlation was observed for both heights between mixing ratios of acetaldehyde and acetone (R2=0.84), acetone and MEK (R2=0.90) as well as acetaldehyde and MEK (R2=0.88) but not for formaldehyde and the others. For the most time, the observed carbonyl compound concentrations above the canopy are higher than within the forest stand. This indicates an additional secondary formation in the atmosphere above the forest. The differences of acetone and acetaldehyde mixing ratios detected by DNPH technique and the PTR-MS could not be fully clarified by a laboratory intercomparison.
[Warneke2006] Warneke, C., JA. De Gouw, A. Stohl, OR. Cooper, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, JS. Holloway, EJ. Williams, BM. Lerner, SA. McKeen, et al., "Biomass burning and anthropogenic sources of CO over New England in the summer 2004", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 111, no. D23: American Geophysical Union, pp. D23S15, 2006.
Link: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005JD006878.shtml
Abstract
During the summer of 2004 large wildfires were burning in Alaska and Canada, and part of the emissions were transported toward the northeast United States, where they were measured during the NEAQS-ITCT 2k4 (New England Air Quality Study–Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) study on board the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown. Using acetonitrile and chloroform as tracers the biomass burning and the anthropogenic fraction of the carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement are determined. As much as 30% of the measured enhancement is attributed to the forest fires in Alaska and Canada transported into the region, and 70% is attributed to the urban emissions of mainly New York and Boston. On some days the forest fire emissions were mixed down to the surface and dominated the CO enhancement. The results compare well with the FLEXPART transport model, indicating that the total emissions during the measurement campaign for biomass burning might be about 22 Tg. The total U.S. anthropogenic CO sources used in FLEXPART are 25 Tg. FLEXPART model, using the U.S. EPA NEI-99 data, overpredicts the CO mixing ratio around Boston and New York in 2004 by about 50%.
2003
[Mayr2003b] Mayr, D., T. Maerk, W. Lindinger, H. Brevard, and C. Yeretzian, "Breath-by-breath analysis of banana aroma by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 223: Elsevier, pp. 743–756, 2003.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380602009673
Abstract
We report on the in vivo breath-by-breath analysis of volatiles released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose, nosespace (NS), is directly introduced into a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles are monitored on-line. These include isopentyl and isobutyl acetate, two characteristic odour compounds of ripe banana, and 2E-hexenal and hexanal, compounds typical of unripe banana. Comparing the NS with the headspace (HS) profile, two differences are outlined. First, NS concentrations of some compounds are increased, compared to the HS, while others are decreased. This indicates that the in-mouth situation has characteristics of its own—mastication, mixing/dilution with saliva, temperature and pH—which modify the aroma relative to an HS aroma. Second, we discuss the temporal evolution of the NS. While 2E-hexenal and hexanal steadily increase in the NS during mastication of unripe banana, no such evolution is observed in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while eating ripe banana. Furthermore, ripe banana shows high VOC concentrations in the swallow breath in contrast to unripe banana.
1999
[Holzinger1999] Holzinger, R., C. Warneke, A. Hansel, A. Jordan, W. Lindinger, D. H. Scharffe, G. Schade, and P. J. Crutzen, "Biomass burning as a source of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and hydrogen cyanide", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, no. 8: Wiley Online Library, pp. 1161–1164, 1999.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/1999GL900156/full

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
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J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
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W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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