"Discrimination of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines by headspace-analysis with PTR-MS.",
Anal Bioanal Chem
, vol. 397, pp. 2315–2324, Jul, 2010.
<p>Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used to analyze the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by in-vitro cultured human cells. For this purpose, two pairs of cancerous and non-cancerous human cell lines were selected:1. lung epithelium cells A-549 and retinal pigment epithelium cells hTERT-RPE1, cultured in different growth media; and 2. squamous lung carcinoma cells EPLC and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS2B, cultured in identical growth medium. The VOCs in the headspace of the cell cultures were sampled: 1. online by drawing off the gas directly from the culture flask; and 2. by accumulation of the VOCs in PTFE bags connected to the flask for at least 12 h. The pure media were analyzed in the same way as the corresponding cells in order to provide a reference. Direct comparison of headspace VOCs from flasks with cells plus medium and from flasks with pure medium enabled the characterization of cell-line-specific production or consumption of VOCs. Among all identified VOCs in this respect, the most outstanding compound was m/z = 45 (acetaldehyde) revealing significant consumption by the cancerous cell lines but not by the non-cancerous cells. By applying multivariate statistical analysis using 42 selected marker VOCs, it was possible to clearly separate the cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines from each other.</p>
[Riess2010] "Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath.",
Anal Chim Acta
, vol. 669, no. 1-2: Hannover Medical School, Sports Physiology and Sports Medicine, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany., pp. 53–62, Jun, 2010.
Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO(x), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC(PAS)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO(x) signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC(PAS) are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.