[Karl2001b] "Variability-lifetime relationship of VOCs observed at the Sonnblick Observatory 1999�Estimation of HO-densities",
, vol. 35, no. 31: Elsevier, pp. 5287–5300, 2001.
An extensive dataset of VOC measurements was collected at the Sonnblick Observatory, Austria (3106 m) in Fall/Winter 1999/2000, showing high mixing ratios of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs at this high altitude site due to upward mixing of air masses (Geophys. Res. Lett. 2F (2001) 507). Here we give an interpretation of proton-transfer-reaction (PTR-MS) mass scans obtained in November 1999 based on fragmentation data, GC-PTR-MS analysis and the variability-lifetime relationship, described by the power law, σ(ln(x))=Aτ−b. The variability-lifetime plot of anthropogenic VOCs gave a proportionality factor A of 1.40 and a,b exponent (sink term) of 0.44 and allowed an estimate of average HO-densities on the order of (1.5±0.4)×105 molecules cm−3. Additionally we were able to indirectly determine a diurnal HO-profile with peak values of (1.3±0.5)×106 molecules cm−3 around midday. HO-reaction rate coefficients for higher aldehydes (heptanal to nonanal) were estimated due to photochemical losses during a stagnant air episode (27 November) and from the variability-lifetime relationship. Combining long term PTR-MS analysis of VOCs and the variability-lifetime method provides a valuable tool for assessing the dominant cause of the variability in VOC concentrations. This information is essential in understanding the sources and photochemical processing of VOCs detected in ambient air at field measurement sites.
[Fall1999] "Volatile organic compounds emitted after leaf wounding: on-line analysis by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry",
Journal of Geophysical Research
, vol. 104, no. D13: American Geophysical Union, pp. 15963–15, 1999.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols, and hexenyl esters), are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. Here we demonstrate that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements allow direct analysis of the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1–2 s of wounding of aspen leaves and then its disappearance and the appearance of its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols, and hexenyl acetates. Similar results were seen in wounded beech leaves and clover. The emission of hexenal family compounds was proportional to the extent of wounding, was not dependent on light, occurred in attached or detached leaves, and was greatly enhanced as detached leaves dried out. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached drying aspen leaves averaged 500 μg C g−1 (dry leaf weight). Leaf wound compounds were not emitted in a nitrogen atmosphere but were released within seconds of reintroduction of oxygen; this indicates that there are not large pools of hexenyl compounds in leaves. The PTR-MS method also allows the simultaneous detection of less abundant hexanal family VOCs including hexanal, hexanol, and hexyl acetate and VOCs formed in the light (isoprene) or during anoxia (acetaldehyde). PTR-MS may be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, and other physical damage to vegetation, from harvesting of crops, and from senescing leaves.