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Found 7 results
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Filters: Author is Kuster, WC  [Clear All Filters]
[Bon2011] Bon, DM., IM. Ulbrich, JA. de Gouw, C. Warneke, WC. Kuster, ML. Alexander, A. Baker, AJ. Beyersdorf, D. Blake, R. Fall, et al., "Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 6: Copernicus GmbH, pp. 2399–2421, 2011.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of  2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.
[Vlasenko2010a] Vlasenko, AL., S. Li, D. Bon, JB. Gilman, WC. Kuster, and JA. De Gouw, "PTR-TOF-MS measurements of atmospheric VOCs during the CALNEX 2010 campaign", AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, vol. 1, pp. 0097, 2010.
During the CALNEX 2010 study, in-situ volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements were made aboard the WHOI research vessel Atlantis by a high resolution proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik). The PTR-TOF-MS was deployed along with a GC-FID system during cruise along the California coast and inside port areas to characterize atmospheric levels and chemical transformation of the extensive set of VOCs in marine boundary layer, in particular, in situations where outflows of pollutants from the major urban centers along the coast occur, and to probe the interactions of the anthropogenic pollutants with marine atmosphere. One minute average scans were collected over a period of 24 days. Several offshore outflow episodes were identified by the increasing mixing ratios of aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene and C8-aromatics. Preliminary analysis suggests a relatively rapid removal of these species as a result of photochemical aging over a time scale of hours during sunrise. The observed rates of removal correspond reasonably well with those expected from OH photochemistry. Data demonstrating all of these conclusions will be shown.
[Warneke2007] Warneke, C., SA. McKeen, JA. De Gouw, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, JS. Holloway, EJ. Williams, BM. Lerner, DD. Parrish, M. Trainer, et al., "Determination of urban volatile organic compound emission ratios and comparison with an emissions database", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 112, no. D10: American Geophysical Union, pp. D10S47, 2007.
During the NEAQS-ITCT2k4 campaign in New England, anthropogenic VOCs and CO were measured downwind from New York City and Boston. The emission ratios of VOCs relative to CO and acetylene were calculated using a method in which the ratio of a VOC with acetylene is plotted versus the photochemical age. The intercept at the photochemical age of zero gives the emission ratio. The so determined emission ratios were compared to other measurement sets, including data from the same location in 2002, canister samples collected inside New York City and Boston, aircraft measurements from Los Angeles in 2002, and the average urban composition of 39 U.S. cities. All the measurements generally agree within a factor of two. The measured emission ratios also agree for most compounds within a factor of two with vehicle exhaust data indicating that a major source of VOCs in urban areas is automobiles. A comparison with an anthropogenic emission database shows less agreement. Especially large discrepancies were found for the C2-C4 alkanes and most oxygenated species. As an example, the database overestimated toluene by almost a factor of three, which caused an air quality forecast model (WRF-CHEM) using this database to overpredict the toluene mixing ratio by a factor of 2.5 as well. On the other hand, the overall reactivity of the measured species and the reactivity of the same compounds in the emission database were found to agree within 30%.
[Warneke2006] Warneke, C., JA. De Gouw, A. Stohl, OR. Cooper, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, JS. Holloway, EJ. Williams, BM. Lerner, SA. McKeen, et al., "Biomass burning and anthropogenic sources of CO over New England in the summer 2004", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 111, no. D23: American Geophysical Union, pp. D23S15, 2006.
During the summer of 2004 large wildfires were burning in Alaska and Canada, and part of the emissions were transported toward the northeast United States, where they were measured during the NEAQS-ITCT 2k4 (New England Air Quality Study–Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) study on board the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown. Using acetonitrile and chloroform as tracers the biomass burning and the anthropogenic fraction of the carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement are determined. As much as 30% of the measured enhancement is attributed to the forest fires in Alaska and Canada transported into the region, and 70% is attributed to the urban emissions of mainly New York and Boston. On some days the forest fire emissions were mixed down to the surface and dominated the CO enhancement. The results compare well with the FLEXPART transport model, indicating that the total emissions during the measurement campaign for biomass burning might be about 22 Tg. The total U.S. anthropogenic CO sources used in FLEXPART are 25 Tg. FLEXPART model, using the U.S. EPA NEI-99 data, overpredicts the CO mixing ratio around Boston and New York in 2004 by about 50%.
[Warneke2005a] Warneke, C., JA. De Gouw, ER. Lovejoy, PC. Murphy, WC. Kuster, and R. Fall, "Development of proton-transfer ion trap-mass spectrometry: On-line detection and identification of volatile organic compounds in air", Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, vol. 16, no. 8: Elsevier, pp. 1316–1324, 2005.
We present a newly developed instrument that uses proton-transfer ion trap-mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) for on-line trace gas analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The instrument is based on the principle of proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS): VOCs are ionized using PTRs and detected with a mass spectrometer. As opposed to a quadrupole mass filter in a PTR-MS, the PIT-MS instrument uses an IT-MS, which has the following advantages: (1) the ability to acquire a full mass spectrum in the same time as one mass with a quadrupole and (2) extended analytical capabilities of identifying VOCs by performing collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion molecule reactions in the IT. The instrument described has, at its current status, limits of detection between 0.05 and 0.5 pbbv for 1-min measurements for all tested VOCs. The PIT-MS was tested in an ambient air measurement in the urban area of Boulder, Colorado, and intercompared with PTR-MS. For all measured compounds the degree of correlation between the two measurements was high (r2 > 0.85), except for acetonitrile (CH3CN), which was close to the limit of detection of the PIT-MS instrument. The two measurements agreed within less than 25%, which was within the combined measurement uncertainties. Automated CID measurements on m/z 59 during the intercomparison were used to determine the contributions of acetone and propanal to the measured signal; both are detected at m/z 59 and thus are indistinguishable in PTR-MS. It was determined that m/z 59 was mainly composed of acetone. An influence of propanal was detected only during a high pollution event. The advantages and future developments of PIT-MS are discussed.
[DeGouw2003a] De Gouw, JA., PD. Goldan, C. Warneke, WC. Kuster, JM. Roberts, M. Marchewka, SB. Bertman, AAP. Pszenny, and WC. Keene, "Validation of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) measurements of gas-phase organic compounds in the atmosphere during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in 2002", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 108, no. D21: American Geophysical Union, pp. 4682, 2003.
Organic compounds were measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's research ship Ronald H. Brown during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in July and August of 2002. PTR-MS has the potential to measure many important organic species with a fast time response, but its validity has not been proven sufficiently. The results obtained by PTR-MS during NEAQS were compared with those from (oxygenated) hydrocarbon measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), peroxyacyl nitrate measurements by gas chromatography/electron capture detection, and carboxylic acid measurements by mist chamber/ion chromatography. The PTR-MS and GC-MS data for methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, isoprene, benzene, and toluene agreed within the measurement uncertainties. The comparison for C8 aromatics and acetaldehyde was less quantitative due to calibration inaccuracies. In addition, PTR-MS measured the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein at 71 amu, the sum of C9 aromatics at 121 amu, and the sum of monoterpenes at 81 and 137 amu. The PTR-MS signal at 61 amu was found to correlate well with data for acetic acid. The signal at 73 amu correlated reasonably well with methyl ethyl ketone data, but the quantitative disagreement suggested interference from other species, possibly methyl glyoxal. The signal at 77 amu correlated well with data for peroxyacetyl nitrate, and the sensitivity inferred from the field data agreed within 30% with the results from laboratory calibrations. Finally, the signal at 105 amu was attributed to styrene and peroxy isobutyryl nitrate. These results prove that many important organic species can be measured accurately and with a fast response time by PTR-MS.
[Stroud2001] Stroud, CA., JM. Roberts, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, PC. Murphy, EJ. Williams, D. Hereid, D. Parrish, D. Sueper, M. Trainer, et al., "Isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein and methylvinyl ketone, at an urban forested site during the 1999 Southern Oxidants Study", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), vol. 106, no. D8: Wiley Online Library, pp. 8035–8046, 2001.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).

J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.

W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.


Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics


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