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Found 14 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is De Gouw, JA  [Clear All Filters]
2011
[DeGouw2011] De Gouw, JA., AM. Middlebrook, C. Warneke, R. Ahmadov, EL. Atlas, R. Bahreini, DR. Blake, CA. Brock, J. Brioude, DW. Fahey, et al., "Organic aerosol formation downwind from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill", Science, vol. 331, no. 6022: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 1295–1299, 2011.
Link: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6022/1295.short
Abstract
A large fraction of atmospheric aerosols are derived from organic compounds with various volatilities. A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred from April to August 2010. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind of DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume with high concentrations of organic aerosol (>25 micrograms per cubic meter) was attributed to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide direct and compelling evidence for the importance of formation of SOA from less volatile hydrocarbons.
2010
[Vlasenko2010a] Vlasenko, AL., S. Li, D. Bon, JB. Gilman, WC. Kuster, and JA. De Gouw, "PTR-TOF-MS measurements of atmospheric VOCs during the CALNEX 2010 campaign", AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, vol. 1, pp. 0097, 2010.
Link: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21C0097V
Abstract
During the CALNEX 2010 study, in-situ volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements were made aboard the WHOI research vessel Atlantis by a high resolution proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik). The PTR-TOF-MS was deployed along with a GC-FID system during cruise along the California coast and inside port areas to characterize atmospheric levels and chemical transformation of the extensive set of VOCs in marine boundary layer, in particular, in situations where outflows of pollutants from the major urban centers along the coast occur, and to probe the interactions of the anthropogenic pollutants with marine atmosphere. One minute average scans were collected over a period of 24 days. Several offshore outflow episodes were identified by the increasing mixing ratios of aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene and C8-aromatics. Preliminary analysis suggests a relatively rapid removal of these species as a result of photochemical aging over a time scale of hours during sunrise. The observed rates of removal correspond reasonably well with those expected from OH photochemistry. Data demonstrating all of these conclusions will be shown.
2007
[Warneke2007] Warneke, C., SA. McKeen, JA. De Gouw, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, JS. Holloway, EJ. Williams, BM. Lerner, DD. Parrish, M. Trainer, et al., "Determination of urban volatile organic compound emission ratios and comparison with an emissions database", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 112, no. D10: American Geophysical Union, pp. D10S47, 2007.
Link: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2006JD007930.shtml
Abstract
During the NEAQS-ITCT2k4 campaign in New England, anthropogenic VOCs and CO were measured downwind from New York City and Boston. The emission ratios of VOCs relative to CO and acetylene were calculated using a method in which the ratio of a VOC with acetylene is plotted versus the photochemical age. The intercept at the photochemical age of zero gives the emission ratio. The so determined emission ratios were compared to other measurement sets, including data from the same location in 2002, canister samples collected inside New York City and Boston, aircraft measurements from Los Angeles in 2002, and the average urban composition of 39 U.S. cities. All the measurements generally agree within a factor of two. The measured emission ratios also agree for most compounds within a factor of two with vehicle exhaust data indicating that a major source of VOCs in urban areas is automobiles. A comparison with an anthropogenic emission database shows less agreement. Especially large discrepancies were found for the C2-C4 alkanes and most oxygenated species. As an example, the database overestimated toluene by almost a factor of three, which caused an air quality forecast model (WRF-CHEM) using this database to overpredict the toluene mixing ratio by a factor of 2.5 as well. On the other hand, the overall reactivity of the measured species and the reactivity of the same compounds in the emission database were found to agree within 30%.
2006
[Warneke2006] Warneke, C., JA. De Gouw, A. Stohl, OR. Cooper, PD. Goldan, WC. Kuster, JS. Holloway, EJ. Williams, BM. Lerner, SA. McKeen, et al., "Biomass burning and anthropogenic sources of CO over New England in the summer 2004", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 111, no. D23: American Geophysical Union, pp. D23S15, 2006.
Link: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005JD006878.shtml
Abstract
During the summer of 2004 large wildfires were burning in Alaska and Canada, and part of the emissions were transported toward the northeast United States, where they were measured during the NEAQS-ITCT 2k4 (New England Air Quality Study–Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) study on board the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown. Using acetonitrile and chloroform as tracers the biomass burning and the anthropogenic fraction of the carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement are determined. As much as 30% of the measured enhancement is attributed to the forest fires in Alaska and Canada transported into the region, and 70% is attributed to the urban emissions of mainly New York and Boston. On some days the forest fire emissions were mixed down to the surface and dominated the CO enhancement. The results compare well with the FLEXPART transport model, indicating that the total emissions during the measurement campaign for biomass burning might be about 22 Tg. The total U.S. anthropogenic CO sources used in FLEXPART are 25 Tg. FLEXPART model, using the U.S. EPA NEI-99 data, overpredicts the CO mixing ratio around Boston and New York in 2004 by about 50%.
[DeGouw2006] De Gouw, JA., C. Warneke, A. Stohl, AG. Wollny, CA. Brock, OR. Cooper, JS. Holloway, M. Trainer, FC. Fehsenfeld, EL. Atlas, et al., "Volatile organic compounds composition of merged and aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 111, no. D10: American Geophysical Union, pp. D10303, 2006.
Link: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005JD006175.shtml
Abstract
The NOAA WP-3 aircraft intercepted aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada during several flights of the NEAQS-ITCT 2k4 mission in 2004. Measurements of acetonitrile (CH3CN) indicated that the air masses had been influenced by biomass burning. The locations of the plume intercepts were well described using emissions estimates and calculations with the transport model FLEXPART. The best description of the data was generally obtained when FLEXPART injected the forest fire emissions to high altitudes in the model. The observed plumes were generally drier than the surrounding air masses at the same altitude, suggesting that the fire plumes had been processed by clouds and that moisture had been removed by precipitation. Different degrees of photochemical processing of the plumes were determined from the measurements of aromatic VOCs. The removal of aromatic VOCs was slow considering the transport times estimated from the FLEXPART model. This suggests that the average OH levels were low during the transport, which may be explained by the low humidity and high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other pollutants. In contrast with previous work, no strong secondary production of acetone, methanol and acetic acid is inferred from the measurements. A clear case of removal of submicron particle volume and acetic acid due to precipitation scavenging was observed.
2005
[Warneke2005a] Warneke, C., JA. De Gouw, ER. Lovejoy, PC. Murphy, WC. Kuster, and R. Fall, "Development of proton-transfer ion trap-mass spectrometry: On-line detection and identification of volatile organic compounds in air", Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, vol. 16, no. 8: Elsevier, pp. 1316–1324, 2005.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044030505002618
Abstract
We present a newly developed instrument that uses proton-transfer ion trap-mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) for on-line trace gas analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The instrument is based on the principle of proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS): VOCs are ionized using PTRs and detected with a mass spectrometer. As opposed to a quadrupole mass filter in a PTR-MS, the PIT-MS instrument uses an IT-MS, which has the following advantages: (1) the ability to acquire a full mass spectrum in the same time as one mass with a quadrupole and (2) extended analytical capabilities of identifying VOCs by performing collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion molecule reactions in the IT. The instrument described has, at its current status, limits of detection between 0.05 and 0.5 pbbv for 1-min measurements for all tested VOCs. The PIT-MS was tested in an ambient air measurement in the urban area of Boulder, Colorado, and intercompared with PTR-MS. For all measured compounds the degree of correlation between the two measurements was high (r2 > 0.85), except for acetonitrile (CH3CN), which was close to the limit of detection of the PIT-MS instrument. The two measurements agreed within less than 25%, which was within the combined measurement uncertainties. Automated CID measurements on m/z 59 during the intercomparison were used to determine the contributions of acetone and propanal to the measured signal; both are detected at m/z 59 and thus are indistinguishable in PTR-MS. It was determined that m/z 59 was mainly composed of acetone. An influence of propanal was detected only during a high pollution event. The advantages and future developments of PIT-MS are discussed.
2004
[Northway2004] Northway, MJ., JA. De Gouw, DW. Fahey, RS. Gao, C. Warneke, JM. Roberts, and F. Flocke, "Evaluation of the role of heterogeneous oxidation of alkenes in the detection of atmospheric acetaldehyde", Atmospheric Environment, vol. 38, no. 35: Elsevier, pp. 6017–6028, 2004.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231004006429
Abstract
Unexpectedly high values for acetaldehyde have been observed in airborne measurements using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry instrument. The acetaldehyde values increase with increasing ambient ozone levels with a ratio up to 5 pptv acetaldehyde per ppbv of ozone in the free troposphere. The elevated values of acetaldehyde cannot easily be explained from known tropospheric chemistry. Here, we investigate the possibility that the elevated acetaldehyde signals are due to a sampling artifact. Laboratory experiments show that the elevated signals are not due to changes of the ion chemistry in the instrument, or from the instrument materials reacting with ozone. The heterogeneous oxidation of a number of unsaturated organic compounds is investigated as a possible source for a chemical artifact produced in the instrument inlet. The products of the heterogeneous reactions are consistent with gas phase chemistry, and the ozonolysis of some alkenes does produce acetaldehyde when they have the appropriate hydrocarbon structure. The amount of reactive material in the free troposphere expected to accumulate in the aircraft inlet is unknown, and the exact origin of reactive compounds that contribute to the artifact production remains unresolved.
2003
[DeGouw2003] De Gouw, JA., C. Warneke, DD. Parrish, JS. Holloway, M. Trainer, and FC. Fehsenfeld, "Emission sources and ocean uptake of acetonitrile (CH3CN) in the atmosphere", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 108, no. D11: American Geophysical Union, pp. 4329, 2003.
Link: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2003/2002JD002897.shtml
Abstract
Airborne measurements of acetonitrile (CH3CN) were made off the U.S. west coast, over California, and during two transfer flights over the U.S. in April and May of 2002. Acetonitrile was strongly enhanced in the plumes from two forest fires, confirming the usefulness of the measurement as an indicator for biomass burning emissions. The emission ratios relative to CO of acetonitrile in the two plumes were slightly higher than previously reported values for fires burning in other fuel types. No significant acetonitrile release was observed in the Los Angeles basin or from other point sources (ships and a power plant). Acetonitrile concentrations were significantly reduced in the marine boundary layer indicating the presence of an ocean uptake sink. Increased loss of acetonitrile was observed close to the coast, suggesting that acetonitrile was efficiently lost by dissolving in the upwelling ocean water, or by biological processes in the surface water.
[DeGouw2003a] De Gouw, JA., PD. Goldan, C. Warneke, WC. Kuster, JM. Roberts, M. Marchewka, SB. Bertman, AAP. Pszenny, and WC. Keene, "Validation of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) measurements of gas-phase organic compounds in the atmosphere during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in 2002", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 108, no. D21: American Geophysical Union, pp. 4682, 2003.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003JD003863/abstract
Abstract
Organic compounds were measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's research ship Ronald H. Brown during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in July and August of 2002. PTR-MS has the potential to measure many important organic species with a fast time response, but its validity has not been proven sufficiently. The results obtained by PTR-MS during NEAQS were compared with those from (oxygenated) hydrocarbon measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), peroxyacyl nitrate measurements by gas chromatography/electron capture detection, and carboxylic acid measurements by mist chamber/ion chromatography. The PTR-MS and GC-MS data for methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, isoprene, benzene, and toluene agreed within the measurement uncertainties. The comparison for C8 aromatics and acetaldehyde was less quantitative due to calibration inaccuracies. In addition, PTR-MS measured the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein at 71 amu, the sum of C9 aromatics at 121 amu, and the sum of monoterpenes at 81 and 137 amu. The PTR-MS signal at 61 amu was found to correlate well with data for acetic acid. The signal at 73 amu correlated reasonably well with methyl ethyl ketone data, but the quantitative disagreement suggested interference from other species, possibly methyl glyoxal. The signal at 77 amu correlated well with data for peroxyacetyl nitrate, and the sensitivity inferred from the field data agreed within 30% with the results from laboratory calibrations. Finally, the signal at 105 amu was attributed to styrene and peroxy isobutyryl nitrate. These results prove that many important organic species can be measured accurately and with a fast response time by PTR-MS.
2002
[Warneke2002] Warneke, C., SL. Luxembourg, JA. De Gouw, HJI. Rinne, AB. Guenther, and R. Fall, "Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of oxygenated volatile organic compounds fluxes from an alfalfa field before and after cutting", Journal of geophysical research, vol. 107, no. D8: American Geophysical Union, pp. 4067, 2002.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2001JD000594/abstract
Abstract
[1] There is interest in and significant uncertainty about the emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (oxVOCs) from vegetation to the atmosphere. Here, we measured the fluxes of selected oxVOCs from an alfalfa field, before, during, and after cutting, using a combination of disjunct eddy covariance and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Over the course of 1 day a significant methanol flux of 4 mg m−2 h−1 was observed from undisturbed alfalfa with a maximum at 0800 LT, possibly caused by the evaporation of dew. A smaller release of hexenals during this day (0.04 mg m−2 h−1) demonstrated the sensitivity of the method. Other results suggested that acetaldehyde and acetone were released in the afternoon but were lost by dry deposition in the evening and morning; deposition velocities were estimated to be 0.2 cm s−1 (acetaldehyde) and 0.09 cm s−1 (acetone). After the alfalfa was cut the emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and hexenals were significantly enhanced and remained high for three days during which the alfalfa was drying. After a rainstorm the oxVOC emissions from the cut, wet alfalfa increased even more. Nighttime measurements yielded low oxVOC fluxes in general, but the high variability of the concentrations during the night and the high degree of correlation between different oxVOCs suggest that the nighttime releases of oxVOCs from alfalfa were nonzero. This work suggests that the global source of oxVOCs due to the production of hay is of minor importance. The emission flux of methanol from vegetation during the growing season may be very large on a global basis.
2001
[Rinne2001] Rinne, HJI., AB. Guenther, C. Warneke, JA. De Gouw, and SL. Luxembourg, "Disjunct eddy covariance technique for trace gas flux measurements", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 3139–3142, 2001.
Link: http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0116/2001GL012900/pdf/2001GL012900.pdf
[Lelieveld2001] J Lelieveld, others., PJ. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, MO. Andreae, CAM. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, GR. Cass, RR. Dickerson, H. Fischer, JA. De Gouw, et al., "The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia", Science, vol. 291, no. 5506: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 1031–1036, 2001.
Link: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/291/5506/1031.short
Abstract
The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6°S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere.
[Warneke2001] Warneke, C., C. Van der Veen, S. Luxembourg, JA. De Gouw, and A. Kok, "Measurements of benzene and toluene in ambient air using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: calibration, humidity dependence, and field intercomparison", International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 207, no. 3: Elsevier, pp. 167–182, 2001.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1387380601003669
[Warneke2001b] Warneke, C., and JA. De Gouw, "Organic trace gas composition of the marine boundary layer over the northwest Indian Ocean in April 2000", Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 34: Elsevier, pp. 5923–5933, 2001.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231001003843

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F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
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J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
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W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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