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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Found 17 results
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[Biasioli2003] Biasioli, F., F. Gasperi, E. Aprea, D. Mott, E. Boscaini, D. Mayr, and T. D. Maerk, "Coupling proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry with linear discriminant analysis: a case study.", J Agric Food Chem, vol. 51, no. 25: Istituto Agrario di S. Michele a/A, S. Michele, Via E. Mach 2, 38010, Italy. franco.biasioli@ismaa.it, pp. 7227–7233, Dec, 2003.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030248i
Abstract
Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) measurements on single intact strawberry fruits were combined with an appropriate data analysis based on compression of spectrometric data followed by class modeling. In a first experiment 8 of 9 different strawberry varieties measured on the third to fourth day after harvest could be successfully distinguished by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on PTR-MS spectra compressed by discriminant partial least squares (dPLS). In a second experiment two varieties were investigated as to whether different growing conditions (open field, tunnel), location, and/or harvesting time can affect the proposed classification method. Internal cross-validation gives 27 successes of 28 tests for the 9 varieties experiment and 100% for the 2 clones experiment (30 samples). For one clone, present in both experiments, the models developed for one experiment were successfully tested with the homogeneous independent data of the other with success rates of 100% (3 of 3) and 93% (14 of 15), respectively. This is an indication that the proposed combination of PTR-MS with discriminant analysis and class modeling provides a new and valuable tool for product classification in agroindustrial applications.
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[Cappellin2011] Cappellin, L., F. Biasioli, E. Schuhfried, C. Soukoulis, T. D. Maerk, and F. Gasperi, "Extending the dynamic range of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometers by a novel dead time correction.", Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, vol. 25, no. 1: IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Food Quality and Nutrition Area, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 S. Michele a/A, Italy., pp. 179–183, Jan, 2011.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcm.4819/abstract
Abstract
Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) allows for very fast simultaneous monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in complex environments. In several applications, food science and food technology in particular, peaks with very different intensities are present in a single spectrum. For VOCs, the concentrations range from the sub-ppt all the way up to the ppm level. Thus, a large dynamic range is necessary. In particular, high intensity peaks are a problem because for them the linear dependency of the detector signal on VOC concentration is distorted. In this paper we present, test with real data, and discuss a novel method which extends the linearity of PTR-TOF-MS for high intensity peaks far beyond the limit allowed by the usual analytical correction methods such as the so-called Poisson correction. Usually, raw data can be used directly without corrections with an intensity of up to about 0.1 ions/pulse, and the Poisson correction allows the use of peaks with intensities of a few ions/pulse. Our method further extends the linear range by at least one order of magnitude. Although this work originated from the necessity to extend the dynamic range of PTR-TOF-MS instruments in agro-industrial applications, it is by no means limited to this area, and can be implemented wherever dead time corrections are an issue.
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[Boscaini2003] Boscaini, E., S. { van Ruth}, F. Biasioli, F. Gasperi, and T. D. Maerk, "Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) analysis of the flavor profile of grana padano, parmigiano reggiano, and grana trentino cheeses.", J Agric Food Chem, vol. 51, no. 7: Institut fuer Ionenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria., pp. 1782–1790, Mar, 2003.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf020922g
Abstract
Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques were used to deduce the profile of odor-active and volatile compounds of three grana cheeses: Grana Padano (GP), Parmigiano Reggiano (PR), and Grana Trentino (GT). Samples for GC-O analysis were prepared by dynamic headspace extraction, while a direct analysis of the headspace formed over cheese was performed by PTR-MS. The major contributors to the odor profile were ethyl butanoate, 2-heptanone, and ethyl hexanoate, with fruity notes. A high concentration of mass 45, tentatively identified as acetaldehyde, was found by PTR-MS analysis. Low odor threshold compounds, e.g., methional and 1-octen-3-one, which contributed to the odor profile but were not detected by FID, were detected by PTR-MS. Principal component analysis on both GC-O and PTR-MS data separated the three cheese samples well and showed specific compounds related to each sample.
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[Ting2012] Ting, V. J. L., C. Soukoulis, P. Silcock, L. Cappellin, A. Romano, E. Aprea, P. J. Bremer, T. D. Maerk, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "In vitro and in vivo flavor release from intact and fresh-cut apple in relation with genetic, textural, and physicochemical parameters.", J Food Sci, vol. 77, no. 11: Research and Innovation Centre, Foundation Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, (TN), Italy., pp. C1226–C1233, Nov, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02947.x
Abstract
Flavor release from 6 commercial apple cultivars (Fuji, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Morgen Dallago, and Red Delicious) under static conditions (intact or fresh-cut samples) and during consumption of fresh-cut samples (nosespace) was determined by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Textural (firmness, fracturability, flesh elasticity, and rupture) and physicochemical (pH, acidity, and water content) properties of the apples were also measured. Static headspace analysis of intact fruits revealed Fuji and Granny Smith apples had the lowest concentration for all measured flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and terpenes), whereas Red Delicious apples had the highest. Fresh-cut samples generally showed a significant increase in total volatile compounds with acetaldehyde being most abundant. However, compared to intact fruits, cut Golden and Red Delicious apples had a lower intensity for ester related peaks. Five parameters were extracted from the nosespace data of peaks related to esters (m/z 43, 61), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), and ethanol (m/z 47): 2 associated with mastication (duration of mastication-t(con); time required for first swallowing event-t(swal)), and 3 related with in-nose volatile compound concentration (area under the curve-AUC; maximum intensity-I(max); time for achieving I(max)-t(max)). Three different behaviors were identified in the nosespace data: a) firm samples with low AUC and t(swal) values (Granny Smith, Fuji), b) mealy samples with high AUC, I(max), t(swal) values, and low t(con) (Morgen Dallago, Golden Delicious), and c) firm samples with high AUC and I(max) values (Red Delicious). Strengths and limitations of the methodology are discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Volatile compounds play a fundamental role in the perceived quality of food. Using apple cultivars, this research showed that in vivo proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) could be used to determine the relationship between the release of volatile flavor compounds and the physicochemical parameters of a real food matrix. This finding suggests that in vivo PTR-MS coupled with traditional physicochemical measurements could be used to yield information on flavor release from a wide range of food matrices and help in the development of strategies to enhance food flavor and quality.
[Kassebacher2013] Kassebacher, T., P. Sulzer, S. Juerschik, E. Hartungen, A. Jordan, A. Edtbauer, S. Feil, G. Hanel, S. Jaksch, L. Maerk, et al., "Investigations of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry for a real-time threat monitoring scenario.", Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, vol. 27, no. 2: Austria., pp. 325–332, Jan, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6456
Abstract
Security and protection against terrorist attacks are major issues in modern society. One especially challenging task is the monitoring and protection of air conditioning and heating systems of buildings against terrorist attacks with toxic chemicals. As existing technologies have low selectivity, long response times or insufficient sensitivity, there is a need for a novel approach such as we present here.We have analyzed various chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and/or toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and related compounds, namely phosgene, diphosgene, chloroacetone, chloroacetophenone, diisopropylaminoethanol, and triethyl phosphate, utilizing a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) instrument with the objective of finding key product ions and their intensities, which will allow a low-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometry based PTR-MS system to be used with high confidence in the assignment of threat agents in the atmosphere.We obtained high accuracy PTR-TOFMS mass spectra of the six compounds under study at two different values for the reduced electric field in the drift tube (E/N). From these data we have compiled a table containing product ions, and isotopic and E/N ratios for highly selective threat compound detection with a compact and cost-effective quadrupole-based PTR-MS instrument. Furthermore, using chloroacetophenone (tear gas), we demonstrated that this instrument's response is highly linear in the concentration range of typical Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs).On the basis of the presented results it is possible to develop a compact and cost-effective PTR-QMS instrument that monitors air supply systems and triggers an alarm as soon as the presence of a threat agent is detected. We hope that this real-time surveillance device will help to seriously improve safety and security in environments vulnerable to terrorist attacks with toxic chemicals.
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[1688] Breiev, K., K. M. M. Burseg, G. OConnell, E. Hartungen, S. S. Biel, X. Cahours, S. Colard, T. D. Maerk, and P. Sulzer, "An online method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in electronic cigarette aerosol based on proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry", Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., vol. 30, pp. 691–697, Feb, 2016.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7487
Abstract
<p>Rationale Due to the recent rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use worldwide, there is a strong scientific but also practical interest in analyzing e-cigarette aerosols. Most studies to date have used standardized but time-consuming offline technologies. Here a proof-of-concept for a fast online quantification setup based on proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is presented. Methods The combination of a novel sampling interface with a time-of-flight PTR-MS instrument specially designed for three scenarios is introduced: (i) mainstream aerosol analysis (aerosol that the user inhales prior to exhalation), and analysis of exhaled breath following (ii) mouth-hold (no inhalation) and (iii) inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols. A double-stage dilution setup allows the various concentration ranges in these scenarios to be accessed. Results First, the instrument is calibrated for the three principal constituents of the e-cigarettes&#39; liquids, namely propylene glycol, vegetable glycerol and nicotine. With the double-stage dilution the instrument&#39;s dynamic range was easily adapted to cover the concentration ranges obtained in the three scenarios: 20&ndash;1100 ppmv for the mainstream aerosol characterisation; 4&ndash;300 ppmv for the mouth-hold; and 2 ppbv to 20 ppmv for the inhalation experiment. Conclusions It is demonstrated that the novel setup enables fast, high time resolution e-cigarette studies with online quantification. This enables the analysis and understanding of any puff-by-puff variations in e-cigarette aerosols. Large-scale studies involving a high number of volunteers will benefit from considerably higher sample throughput and shorter data processing times.</p>
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[Wisthaler2005] Wisthaler, A., G. Tamás, D. P. Wyon, P. Strøm-Tejsen, D. Space, J. Beauchamp, A. Hansel, T. D. Maerk, and C. J. Weschler, "Products of ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated aircraft environment.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 39, no. 13: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark., pp. 4823–4832, Jul, 2005.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es047992j
Abstract
We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline), cabin plus ozone, cabin plus soiled T-shirts (surrogates for human occupants), and cabin plus soiled T-shirts plus ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin without T-shirts, at concentrations typically encountered during commercial air travel, increased the mixing ratio (v:v concentration) of detected pollutants from 35 ppb to 80 ppb. Most of this increase was due to the production of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and tentatively identified low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The addition of soiled T-shirts, with no ozone present, increased the mixing ratio of pollutants in the cabin air only slightly, whereas the combination of soiled T-shirts and ozone increased the mixing ratio of detected pollutants to 110 ppb, with more than 20 ppb originating from squalene oxidation products (acetone, 4-oxopentanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one). For the two conditions with ozone present, the more-abundant oxidation products included acetone/propanal (8-20 ppb), formaldehyde (8-10 ppb), nonanal (approximately 6 ppb), 4-oxopentanal (3-7 ppb), acetic acid (approximately 7 ppb), formic acid (approximately 3 ppb), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (0.5-2.5 ppb), as well as compounds tentatively identified as acrolein (0.6-1 ppb) and crotonaldehyde (0.6-0.8 ppb). The odor thresholds of certain products were exceeded. With an outdoor air exchange of 3 h(-1) and a recirculation rate of 20 h(-1), the measured ozone surface removal rate constant was 6.3 h(-1) when T-shirts were not present, compared to 11.4 h(-1) when T-shirts were present.
[Sulzer2012] Sulzer, P., F. Petersson, B. Agarwal, K. H. Becker, S. Juerschik, T. D. Maerk, D. Perry, P. Watts, and C. A. Mayhew, "Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and the unambiguous real-time detection of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene.", Anal Chem, vol. 84, no. 9: Ionicon Analytik Gesellschaft m.b.H., Eduard-Bodem-Gasse 3, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria., pp. 4161–4166, May, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac3004456
Abstract
Fears of terrorist attacks have led to the development of various technologies for the real-time detection of explosives, but all suffer from potential ambiguities in the assignment of threat agents. Using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), an unusual bias dependence in the detection sensitivity of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the reduced electric field (E/N) has been observed. For protonated TNT, rather than decreasing signal intensity with increasing E/N, which is the more usual sensitivity pattern observed in PTR-MS studies, an anomalous behavior is first observed, whereby the signal intensity initially rises with increasing E/N. We relate this to unexpected ion-molecule chemistry based upon comparisons of measurements taken with related nitroaromatic compounds (1,3,5 trinitrobenzene, 1,3 dinitrobenzene, and 2,4 dinitrotoluene) and electronic structure calculations. This dependence provides an easily measurable signature that can be used to provide a rapid highly selective analytical procedure to minimize false positives for the detection of TNT. This has major implications for Homeland Security and, in addition, has the potential of making instrumentation cost-effective for use in security areas. This study shows that an understanding of fundamental ion-molecule chemistry occurring in low-pressure drift tubes is needed to exploit selectivity and sensitivity for analytical purposes.
[Soukoulis2010] Soukoulis, C., E. Aprea, F. Biasioli, L. Cappellin, E. Schuhfried, T. D. Maerk, and F. Gasperi, "Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.", Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, vol. 24, no. 14: IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Food Quality and Nutrition Area, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010, S.Michele a/A, (TN), Italy., pp. 2127–3134, Jul, 2010.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.4617
Abstract
We apply, for first time, the recently developed proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) apparatus as a rapid method for the monitoring of lactic acid fermentation (LAF) of milk. PTR-TOF-MS has been proposed as a very fast, highly sensitive and versatile technique but there have been no reports of its application to dynamic biochemical processes with relevance to the food industry. LAF is a biochemical-physicochemical dynamic process particularly relevant for the dairy industry as it is an important step in the production of many dairy products. Further, LAF is important in the utilization of the by-products of the cheese industry, such as whey wastewaters. We show that PTR-TOF-MS is a powerful method for the monitoring of major volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) formed or depleted during LAF, including acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin and 2-propanone, and it also provides information about the evolution of minor VOCs such as acetic acid, 2,3-pentanedione, ethanol, and off-flavor related VOCs such as dimethyl sulfide and furfural. This can be very important considering that the conventional measurement of pH decrease during LAF is often ineffective due to the reduced response of pH electrodes resulting from the formation of protein sediments. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) data on the inoculated milk base and final fermented product are also presented to supporting peak identification. We demonstrate that PTR-TOF-MS can be used as a rapid, efficient and non-invasive method for the monitoring of LAF from headspace, supplying important data about the quality of the final product and that it may be used to monitor the efficacy of manufacturing practices.
[Aprea2006] Aprea, E., F. Biasioli, G. Sani, C. Cantini, T. D. Maerk, and F. Gasperi, "Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) headspace analysis for rapid detection of oxidative alteration of olive oil.", J Agric Food Chem, vol. 54, no. 20: Agri-Food Quality Department, IASMA Research Center, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy. eugenio.aprea@iasma.it, pp. 7635–7640, Oct, 2006.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf060970r
Abstract
Olive oil has been characterized by rapid proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) headspace analysis without any concentration of the volatiles or pretreatment of the samples. Comparison of extra virgin and defective (rancid) samples, as described by a panel of sensory judges, and the monitoring of thermo-oxidation processes are discussed. Multivariate analysis of PTR-MS data has been carried out and cross-validated, providing (i) reliable classification models for extra virgin oil as opposed to defective oil and (ii) calibration models able to predict independently thermo-oxidative degradation and the corresponding peroxide value. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns of volatiles considered in this study are also reported.
[Wisthaler2007] Wisthaler, A., P. Strøm-Tejsen, L. Fang, T. J. Arnaud, A. Hansel, T. D. Maerk, and D. P. Wyon, "PTR-MS assessment of photocatalytic and sorption-based purification of recirculated cabin air during simulated 7-h flights with high passenger density.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 41, no. 1: Institut fuer Ionenphysik, Leopold-Franzens- Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. armin.wisthaler@uibk.ac.at, pp. 229–234, Jan, 2007.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es060424e
Abstract
Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefilter; and a two-stage sorption-based air filter (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h flights with 17 occupants. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was efficiently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline mealsto produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
[Schuhfried2011] Schuhfried, E., F. Biasioli, E. Aprea, L. Cappellin, C. Soukoulis, A. Ferrigno, T. D. Maerk, and F. Gasperi, "PTR-MS measurements and analysis of models for the calculation of Henry's law constants of monosulfides and disulfides.", Chemosphere, vol. 83, no. 3: Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria., pp. 311–317, Apr, 2011.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.051
Abstract
Sulfides are known for their strong odor impact even at very low concentrations. Here, we report Henry's law constants (HLCs) measured at the nanomolar concentration range in water for monosulfides (dimethylsulfide, ethylmethylsulfide, diethylsulfide, allylmethylsulfide) and disulfides (dimethyldisulfide, diethylsulfide, dipropylsulfide) using a dynamic stripping technique coupled to Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). The experimental data were compared with literature values and to vapor/solubility calculations and their consistency was confirmed employing the extra-thermodynamic enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. Our experimental data are compatible with reported literature values, and they are typically lower than averaged experimental literature values by about 10%. Critical comparison with other freely available models (modeled vapor/solubility; group and bond additivity methods; Linear Solvation Energy Relationship; SPARC) was performed to validate their applicability to monosulfides and disulfides. Evaluation of theoretical models reveals a large deviation from our measured values by up to four times (in units of Matm(-1)). Two group contribution models were adjusted in view of the new data, and HLCs for a list of sulfur compounds were calculated. Based on our findings we recommend the evaluation and adaption of theoretical models for monosulfides and disulfides to lower values of solubility and higher values of fugacity.
[Fabris2010] Fabris, A., F. Biasioli, P. M. Granitto, E. Aprea, L. Cappellin, E. Schuhfried, C. Soukoulis, T. D. Maerk, F. Gasperi, and I. Endrizzi, "PTR-TOF-MS and data-mining methods for rapid characterisation of agro-industrial samples: influence of milk storage conditions on the volatile compounds profile of Trentingrana cheese.", J Mass Spectrom, vol. 45, no. 9: IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Food Quality and Nutrition Area, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010, S. Michele a/A, Italy., pp. 1065–1074, Sep, 2010.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jms.1797/abstract
Abstract
Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), a direct injection mass spectrometric technique based on an efficient implementation of chemical ionisation, allows for fast and high-sensitivity monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The first implementations of PTR-MS, based on quadrupole mass analyzers (PTR-Quad-MS), provided only the nominal mass of the ions measured and thus little chemical information. To partially overcome these limitations and improve the analytical capability of this technique, the coupling of proton transfer reaction ionisation with a time-of-flight mass analyser has been recently realised and commercialised (PTR-TOF-MS). Here we discuss the very first application of this new instrument to agro-industrial problems and dairy science in particular. As a case study, we show here that the rapid PTR-TOF-MS fingerprinting coupled with data-mining methods can quickly verify whether the storage condition of the milk affects the final quality of cheese and we provide relevant examples of better compound identification in comparison with the previous PTR-MS implementations. In particular, 'Trentingrana' cheese produced by four different procedures for milk storage are compared both in the case of winter and summer production. It is indeed possible to set classification models with low prediction errors and to identify the chemical formula of the ion peaks used for classification, providing evidence of the role that this novel spectrometric technique can play for fundamental and applied agro-industrial themes.
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[Cappellin2012a] Cappellin, L., T. Karl, M. Probst, O. Ismailova, P. M. Winkler, C. Soukoulis, E. Aprea, T. D. Maerk, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "On quantitative determination of volatile organic compound concentrations using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 46, no. 4: IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Food Quality and Nutrition Area, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010, S. Michele a/A, Italy., pp. 2283–2290, Feb, 2012.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es203985t
Abstract
Proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has become a reference technique in environmental science allowing for VOC monitoring with low detection limits. The recent introduction of time-of-flight mass analyzer (PTR-ToF-MS) opens new horizons in terms of mass resolution, acquisition time, and mass range. A standard procedure to perform quantitative VOC measurements with PTR-ToF-MS is to calibrate the instrument using a standard gas. However, given the number of compounds that can be simultaneously monitored by PTR-ToF-MS, such a procedure could become impractical, especially when standards are not readily available. In the present work we show that, under particular conditions, VOC concentration determinations based only on theoretical predictions yield good accuracy. We investigate a range of humidity and operating conditions and show that theoretical VOC concentration estimations are accurate when the effect of water cluster ions is negligible. We also show that PTR-ToF-MS can successfully be used to estimate reaction rate coefficients between H(3)O(+) and VOC at PTR-MS working conditions and find good agreement with the corresponding nonthermal theoretical predictions. We provide a tabulation of theoretical rate coefficients for a number of relevant volatile organic compounds at various energetic conditions and test the approach in a laboratory study investigating the oxidation of alpha-pinene.
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[DelPulgar2011] Del Pulgar}, Jé. Sánchez {, C. Soukoulis, F. Biasioli, L. Cappellin, C. García, F. Gasperi, P. Granitto, T. D. Maerk, E. Piasentier, and E. Schuhfried, "Rapid characterization of dry cured ham produced following different PDOs by proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS).", Talanta, vol. 85, no. 1: Food Technology, Facultad de Veterinaria, UEx, Campus Universitario s/n, 10003 Cáceres, Spain., pp. 386–393, Jul, 2011.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011.03.077
Abstract
In the present study, the recently developed proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) technique was used for the rapid characterization of dry cured hams produced according to 4 of the most important Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs): an Iberian one (Dehesa de Extremadura) and three Italian ones (Prosciutto di San Daniele, Prosciutto di Parma and Prosciutto Toscano). In total, the headspace composition and respective concentration for nine Spanish and 37 Italian dry cured ham samples were analyzed by direct injection without any pre-treatment or pre-concentration. Firstly, we show that the rapid PTR-ToF-MS fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (Principal Components Analysis) indicates a good separation of the dry cured ham samples according to their production process and that it is possible to set up, using data mining methods, classification models with a high success rate in cross validation. Secondly, we exploited the higher mass resolution of the new PTR-ToF-MS, as compared with standard quadrupole based versions, for the identification of the exact sum formula of the mass spectrometric peaks providing analytical information on the observed differences. The work indicates that PTR-ToF-MS can be used as a rapid method for the identification of differences among dry cured hams produced following the indications of different PDOs and that it provides information on some of the major volatile compounds and their link with the implemented manufacturing practices such as rearing system, salting and curing process, manufacturing practices that seem to strongly affect the final volatile organic profile and thus the perceived quality of dry cured ham.
[Aprea2007b] Aprea, E., F. Biasioli, S. Carlin, G. Versini, T. D. Maerk, and F. Gasperi, "Rapid white truffle headspace analysis by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and comparison with solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.", Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, vol. 21, no. 16: IASMA Research Center, Agri-Food Quality Department, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 S. Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy. eugenio.aprea@iasma.it, pp. 2564–2572, 2007.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3118
Abstract
The gastronomic relevance and high price of white truffle are related mainly to its unique aroma. Here we evaluate, for the first time, the possibility of characterizing in a rapid and non-destructive way the aroma of white truffles based on proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We indicate that anonymous PTR-MS fingerprinting allows sample classification and we also compare qualitatively and quantitatively PTR-MS data with measurements made by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC) of the same samples under the same conditions. PTR-MS fragmentation data of truffle-relevant compounds are also published here for the first time. Most of the sulfur-containing compounds detected by GC and relevant for white truffle aroma have a high positive correlation with single PTR-MS peaks. Our work indicates that, after preliminary comparison with GC data, PTR-MS is a new tool for the rapid, quantitative and non-invasive characterization of white truffle by direct headspace injection without any pre-concentration.
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[1576] Lanza, M., J. W. Acton, P. Sulzer, K. Breiev, S. Juerschik, A. Jordan, E. Hartungen, G. Hanel, L. Maerk, T. D. Maerk, et al., "Selective reagent ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry: a rapid technology for the novel analysis of blends of new psychoactive substances", Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 50, pp. 427–431, 2015.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3514
Abstract
In this study we demonstrate the potential of selective reagent ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry for the rapid and selective identification of a popular new psychoactive substance blend called ‘synthacaine’, a mixture that is supposed to imitate the sensory and intoxicating effects of cocaine. Reactions with H3O+ result in protonated parent molecules which can be tentatively assigned to benzocaine and methiopropamine. However, by comparing the product ion branching ratios obtained at two reduced electric field values (90 and 170 Td) for two reagent ions (H3O+ and NO+) to those of the pure chemicals, we show that identification is possible with a much higher level of confidence then when relying solely on the m/z of protonated parent molecules. A rapid and highly selective analytical identification of the constituents of a recreational drug is particularly crucial to medical personnel for the prompt medical treatment of overdoses, toxic effects or allergic reactions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
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J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
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W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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