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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Found 74 results
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2016
[1716] Schuhfried, E., J. {Sánchez Del Pulgar}, M. Bobba, R. Piro, L. Cappellin, T. D. Märk, and F. Biasioli, "Classification of 7 monofloral honey varieties by PTR-ToF-MS direct headspace analysis and chemometrics.", Talanta, vol. 147, pp. 213–219, Jan, 2016.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2015.09.062
Abstract
<p>Honey, in particular monofloral varieties, is a valuable commodity. Here, we present proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry, PTR-ToF-MS, coupled to chemometrics as a successful tool in the classification of monofloral honeys, which should serve in fraud protection against mispresentation of the floral origin of honey. We analyzed 7 different honey varieties from citrus, chestnut, sunflower, honeydew, robinia, rhododendron and linden tree, in total 70 different honey samples and a total of 206 measurements. Only subtle differences in the profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the different honeys could be found. Nevertheless, it was possible to successfully apply 6 different classification methods with a total correct assignment of 81-99% in the internal validation sets. The most successful methods were stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN), giving total correct assignments in the external validation sets of 100 and 90%, respectively. Clearly, PTR-ToF-MS/chemometrics is a powerful tool in honey classification.</p>
[1764] Morozova, K., A. Romano, F. Lonardi, R. Ferrarini, F. Biasioli, and M. Scampicchio, "Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering", Thermochimica Acta, vol. 630, pp. 31–36, Apr, 2016.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2016.01.011
Abstract
<p>tThis work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry.Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the witheringprocess, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e.berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activityduring withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 Kwas monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used asmarker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changesin the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin ofsuch changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfermass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCsfragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.</p>
[1789] Papurello, D., S. Silvestri, L. Tomasi, I. Belcari, F. Biasioli, and M. Santarelli, "Natural Gas Trace Compounds Analysis with Innovative Systems: PTR-ToF-MS and FASTGC", Energy Procedia, vol. 101, pp. 536–541, 2016.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610216312772
Abstract
<p>The technique of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) couples a proton transfer reagent, usually H3O+, with a drift tube and mass spectrometer to determine concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has successfully been applied to a wide variety of matrices to identify and to investigate on the behavior of trace compounds; among the possible field of applications we can find: food, air, energy, etc. Natural gas is considered as a fuel for high energy efficiencies applications such as SOFC generators. The ability to distinguish several isobaric aldehydes, ketones, isoprenoids and other compounds is impossible using PTR-MS instrument. In the present research work, PTR-ToF-MS was coupled to a prototype FastGC system allowing for a rapid (90 s) chromatographic separation of the sample headspace prior to PTR-MS analysis. The system was tested on natural gas trace compounds to individuate the major elements and to identify possible issues for the SOFC generators. In comparison to the results obtained by direct injection, FastGC provided additional information, thanks to a less drastic dilution of the sample and due to the chromatographic separation of isomers. This was achieved without increasing duration and complexity of the analysis.</p>
[1724] Capozzi, V., S. Makhoul, E. Aprea, A. Romano, L. Cappellin, A. Sanchez Jimena, G. Spano, F. Gasperi, M. Scampicchio, and F. Biasioli, "PTR-{MS} Characterization of VOCs Associated with Commercial Aromatic Bakery Yeasts of Wine and Beer Origin", Molecules, vol. 21, pp. 483, Apr, 2016.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040483
Abstract
<p>In light of the increasing attention towards &ldquo;green&rdquo; solutions to improve food quality, the use of aromatic-enhancing microorganisms offers the advantage to be a natural and sustainable solution that did not negatively influence the list of ingredients. In this study, we characterize, for the first time, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with aromatic bakery yeasts. Three commercial bakery starter cultures, respectively formulated with three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from white wine, red wine, and beer, were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), a direct injection analytical technique for detecting volatile organic compounds with high sensitivity (VOCs). Two ethanol-related peaks (m/z 65.059 and 75.080) described qualitative differences in fermentative performances. The release of compounds associated to the peaks at m/z 89.059, m/z 103.075, and m/z 117.093, tentatively identified as acetoin and esters, are coherent with claimed flavor properties of the investigated strains. We propose these mass peaks and their related fragments as biomarkers to optimize the aromatic performances of commercial preparations and for the rapid massive screening of yeast collections.</p>
2015
[1710] Gamero-Negrón, R., J. {Sánchez Del Pulgar}, L. Cappellin, C. García, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian × Duroc females: Effect on the VOC profile of dry-cured shoulders and dry-cured loins as detected by PTR-ToF-MS.", Meat Sci, vol. 110, pp. 169–173, Dec, 2015.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.07.018
Abstract
<p>Immunocastration in pigs has been proposed as a cruelty-free alternative to surgical castration. In this work the effect of immune-spaying of female pigs on the volatile compound profile of Iberian dry-cured products was evaluated. The head-space volatile compound of dry-cured shoulders and loins from surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire Iberian &times; Duroc females was characterized by proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. It was not possible to identify a significant effect of the castration modality on dry-cured shoulders, probably because of the heterogeneity of samples. Contrarily, Principal Component Analysis of dry-cured loins indicates a better homogeneity of samples and the separation of loins from surgically spayed and immune-spayed females. Some mass peaks tentatively identified as important flavor compounds in dry-cured products, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 3-methylbutanoic acid, were significantly higher in the immune-spayed females. Therefore, immune-spaying seems to have a negligible effect on the volatile compound profile of dry-cured shoulders, whereas it could affect the VOC profile in the case of dry-cured loins.</p>
[1639] Romano, A., V. Capozzi, G. Spano, and F. Biasioli, "Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry: online and rapid determination of volatile organic compounds of microbial origin.", Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol. 99, pp. 3787–3795, May, 2015.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6528-y
Abstract
<p>Analytical tools for the identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microbial cultures have countless applications in an industrial and research context which are still not fully exploited. The various techniques for VOC analysis generally arise from the application of different scientific and technological philosophies, favoring either sample throughput or chemical information. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) represents a valid compromise between the two aforementioned approaches, providing rapid and direct measurements along with highly informative analytical output. The present paper reviews the main applications of PTR-MS in the microbiological field, comprising food, environmental, and medical applications.</p>
[1706] Aprea, E., A. Romano, E. Betta, F. Biasioli, L. Cappellin, M. Fanti, and F. Gasperi, "Volatile compound changes during shelf life of dried Boletus edulis: comparison between SPME-GC-MS and PTR-ToF-MS analysis.", J Mass Spectrom, vol. 50, pp. 56–64, Jan, 2015.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3469
Abstract
<p>Drying process is commonly used to allow long time storage of valuable porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis). Although considered a stable product dried porcini flavour changes during storage. Monitoring of volatile compounds during shelf life may help to understand the nature of the observed changes. In the present work two mass spectrometric techniques were used to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds during commercial shelf life of dried porcini. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allowed the identification of 66 volatile compounds, 36 of which reported for the first time, monitored during the commercial shelf life of dried porcini. Proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) , a direct injection mass spectrometric technique, was shown to be a fast and sensitive instrument for the general monitoring of volatile compound evolution during storage of dried porcini. Furthermore, PTR-ToF-MS grants access to compounds whose determination would otherwise require lengthy pre-concentration and/or derivatization steps such as ammonia and small volatile amines. The two techniques, both used for the first time to study dried porcini, provided detailed description of time evolution of volatile compounds during shelf life. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and monoterpenes diminish during the storage while carboxylic acids, pyrazines, lactones and amines increase. The storage temperature modifies the rate of the observed changes influencing the final quality of the dried porcini. We showed the advantages of both techniques, suggesting a strategy to be adopted to follow time evolution of volatile compounds in food products during shelf life, based on the identification of compounds by GC-MS and the rapid time monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS measurements in order to maximize the advantages of both techniques.</p>
2014
[1548] Aprea, E., L. Cappellin, F. Gasperi, F. Morisco, V. Lembo, A. Rispo, R. Tortora, P. Vitaglione, N. Caporaso, and F. Biasioli, "Application of PTR-TOF-{MS} to investigate metabolites in exhaled breath of patients affected by coeliac disease under gluten free diet", Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 966, pp. 208–213, Sep, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.02.015
Abstract
<p>Coeliac disease (CD) is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the small bowel induced in genetically susceptible people by the exposure to gliadin gluten. Even though several tests are available to assist the diagnosis, CD remains a biopsy-defined disorder, thus any non-invasive or less invasive diagnostic tool may be beneficial. The analysis of volatile metabolites in exhaled breath, given its non-invasive nature, is particularly promising as a screening tool of disease in symptomatic or non-symptomatic patients. In this preliminary study the proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry coupled to a buffered end-tidal on-line sampler to investigate metabolites in the exhaled breath of patients affected by coeliac disease under a gluten free diet was applied. Both H3O+ or NO+ were used as precursor ions. In our investigation no differences were found in the exhaled breath of CD patients compared to healthy controls. In this study, 33 subjects were enrolled: 16 patients with CD, all adhering a gluten free diet, and 17 healthy controls. CD patients did not show any symptom of the disease at the time of breath analysis; thus the absence of discrimination from healthy controls was not surprising.</p>
[Papurello2014] Papurello, D., E. Schuhfried, A. Lanzini, A. Romano, L. Cappellin, T. D. Märk, S. Silvestri, and F. Biasioli, "Influence of co-vapors on biogas filtration for fuel cells monitored with PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry)", Fuel processing technology, vol. 118: Elsevier, pp. 133–140, 2014.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378382013002725
[1609] Makhoul, S., A. Romano, L. Cappellin, G. Spano, V. Capozzi, E. Benozzi, T. D. Märk, E. Aprea, F. Gasperi, H. El-Nakat, et al., "Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry for the study of the production of volatile compounds by bakery yeast starters.", J Mass Spectrom, vol. 49, pp. 850–859, Sep, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3421
Abstract
<p>The aromatic impact of bakery yeast starters is currently receiving considerable attention. The flavor characteristics of the dough and the finished products are usually evaluated by gas chromatography and sensory analysis. The limit of both techniques resides in their low-throughput character. In the present work, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled to a time-of-flight mass analyzer, was employed, for the first time, to measure the volatile fractions of dough and bread, and to monitor Saccharomyces cerevisiae volatile production in a fermented food matrix. Leavening was performed on small-scale (1&thinsp;g) dough samples inoculated with different commercial yeast strains. The leavened doughs were then baked, and volatile profiles were determined during leavening and after baking. The experimental setup included a multifunctional autosampler, which permitted the follow-up of the leavening process on a small scale with a typical throughput of 500 distinct data points in 16&thinsp;h. The system allowed to pinpoint differences between starter yeast strains in terms of volatile emission kinetics, with repercussions on the final product (i.e. the corresponding micro-loaves). This work demonstrates the applicability of PTR-MS for the study of volatile organic compound production during bread-making, for the automated and online real-time monitoring of the leavening process, and for the characterization and selection of bakery yeast starters in view of their production of volatile compounds.</p>
[1704] Yener, S., A. Romano, L. Cappellin, T. D. Märk, J. {Sánchez Del Pulgar}, F. Gasperi, L. Navarini, and F. Biasioli, "PTR-ToF-MS characterisation of roasted coffees (C. arabica) from different geographic origins.", J Mass Spectrom, vol. 49, pp. 929–935, Sep, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3455
Abstract
<p>Characterisation of coffees according to their origins is of utmost importance for commercial qualification. In this study, the aroma profiles of different batches of three monoorigin roasted Coffea arabica coffees (Brazil, Ethiopia and Guatemala) were analysed by Proton-Transfer-Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). The measurements were performed with the aid of a multipurpose autosampler. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate data analysis techniques were applied in order to visualise data and classify the coffees according to origin. Significant differences were found in volatile profiles of coffees. Principal component analysis allowed visualising a separation of the three coffees according to geographic origin and further partial least square regression-discriminant analysis classification showed completely correct predictions. Remarkably, the samples of one batch could be used as training set to predict geographic origin of the samples of the other batch, suggesting the possibility to predict further batches in coffee production by means of the same approach. Tentative identification of mass peaks aided characterisation of aroma fractions. Classification pinpointed some volatile compounds important for discrimination of coffees.</p>
[1562] Farneti, B., N. Busatto, I. Khomenko, L. Cappellin, S. Gutierrez, F. Spinelli, R. Velasco, F. Biasioli, G. Costa, and F. Costa, "Untargeted metabolomics investigation of volatile compounds involved in the development of apple superficial scald by PTR-ToF-MS", Metabolomics, Jul, 2014.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-014-0696-0
Abstract
<p>The superficial scald is an important physiological disorder affecting apple fruit during postharvest storage. To date, the accumulation, and further oxidation, of α-farnesene was considered as the most probable cause for the development of this physiopathy. In order to perform a more broad investigation, a PTR-ToF&ndash;MS (proton transfer reaction&mdash;time of flight&mdash;mass spectrometry) was employed to monitor the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production along with the progression of this disorder in fruit of &ldquo;Granny Smith&rdquo;, an apple variety known to be highly susceptible to scald. The untargeted metabolite investigation was performed on both skin and pulp, as well as comparing control versus treated tissues with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene competitor widely used to prevent the development of this phenomenon. The rapid and non-destructive analysis of the VOC array carried out by PTR-ToF&ndash;MS identified three specific groups of metabolites in the skin, among which the 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO) resulted significantly associated with the development of the superficial scald in apple. The results proposed in this work suggest the use of this novel equipment for an on-line monitoring of the VOCs released by the apple during the postharvest storage, as well as to use MHO as a possible biochemical marker for an early detection of the superficial scald symptoms.</p>
2013
[1470] Biasioli, F., "10 years PTR-MS at FEM: from sensory analysis to omics", CONFERENCE SERIES, 1, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Oezdestan2013] Özdestan, Ö., S. M. van Ruth, M. Alewijn, A. Koot, A. Romano, L. Cappellin, and F. Biasioli, "Differentiation of specialty coffees by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry", Food Research International: Elsevier, 2013.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996913003025
Abstract
In the coffee sector a diversity of certifications is available, with the most well-known being organic and fair trade. Intrinsic markers of products may help to assure the authenticity of food products and complement administrative controls. In the present study 110 market coffees with special production traits were characterized by high sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (HS PTR-MS) and volatiles were tentatively identified by PTR-time of flight MS. Espresso coffees, Kopi Luwak coffee and organic coffees could be distinguished by their profiles of volatile compounds with the help of chemometrics. A PLS-DA classification model was estimated to classify the organic and regular coffees by their HS PTR-MS mass spectra. Cross validation showed correct prediction of 42 out of the 43 (98%) organic coffee samples and 63 out of the 67 (95%) regular coffee samples. Therefore, the presented strategy is a promising approach to rapid organic coffee authentication.
[1591] Maihom, T., E. Schuhfried, M. Probst, J. Limtrakul, T. D. Märk, and F. Biasioli, "Fragmentation of allylmethylsulfide by chemical ionization: dependence on humidity and inhibiting role of water.", J Phys Chem A, vol. 117, pp. 5149–5160, Jun, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp4015806
Abstract
<p>We report on a previously unknown reaction mechanism involving water in the fragmentation reaction following chemical ionization. This result stems from a study presented here on the humidity-dependent and energy-dependent endoergic fragmentation of allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) upon protonation in a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The fragmentation pathways were studied with experimental (PTR-MS) and quantum chemical methods (polarizable continuum model (PCM), microhydration, studied at the MP2/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MP2/6-31G(d,p) level of theory). We report in detail on the energy profiles, reaction mechanisms, and proton affinities (G4MP2 calculations). In the discovered reaction mechanism, water reduces the fragmentation of protonated species in chemical ionization. It does so by direct interaction with the protonated species via covalent binding (C3H5(+)) or via association (AMS&middot;H(+)). This stabilizes intermediate complexes and thus overall increases the activation energy for fragmentation. Water thereby acts as a reusable inhibitor (anticatalyst) in chemical ionization. Moreover, according to the quantum chemical (QC) results, when water is present in abundance it has the opposite effect and enhances fragmentation. The underlying reason is a concentration-dependent change in the reaction principle from active inhibition of fragmentation to solvation, which then enhances fragmentation. This amphoteric behavior of water is found for the fragmentation of C3H5(+) to C3H3(+), and similarly for the fragmentation of AMS&middot;H(+) to C3H5(+). The results support humidity-dependent quantification efforts for PTR-MS and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Moreover, the results should allow for a better understanding of ion-chemistry in the presence of water.</p>
[Romano2013] Romano, A., L. Cappellin, V. Ting, E. Aprea, L. Navarini, M. Barnabà, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "Hyphenation of PTR-ToF-MS and newly developed software provides a new effective tool for the study of inter-individual differences among tasters", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 59, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Ting2013] Ting, V. J. L., C. Soukoulis, E. Aprea, P. Silcock, P. Bremer, A. Romano, L. Cappellin, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "In-vivo volatile organic compound (VOC) release from fresh-cut apple cultivars: PTR-Quad-MS and PTR-ToF-MS", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 229, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Tsevdou2013] Tsevdou, M., C. Soukoulis, L. Cappellin, F. Gasperi, P. S. Taoukis, and F. Biasioli, "Monitoring the effect of high pressure and transglutaminase treatment of milk on the evolution of flavour compounds during lactic acid fermentation using PTR-ToF-MS.", Food Chem, vol. 138, no. 4: Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Polytechnioupoli Zografou, Zografou 15780, Athens, Greece., pp. 2159–2167, Jun, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.007
Abstract
In this study, the effects of thermal or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of a milk base in the absence or presence of a transglutaminase (TGase) protein cross-linking step on the flavour development of yoghurt were investigated. The presence of several tentatively identified volatile flavour compounds (VOCs), both during the enzymatic treatment and the lactic acid fermentation of the milk base, were monitored using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). The formation of the major flavour compounds (acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, and 2-butanone) followed a sigmoidal trend described by the modified Gompertz model. The HHP treatment of milk increased significantly the volatile compound formation rate whereas it did not affect the duration of the lag phase of formation, with the exception of acetaldehyde and diacetyl formation. On the contrary, the TGase cross-linking of milk did not significantly modify the formation rate of the volatile compounds but shortened the duration of the lag phase of their formation.
[Cappellin2013a] Cappellin, L., E. Aprea, P. Granitto, A. Romano, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "Multiclass methods in the analysis of metabolomic datasets: The example of raspberry cultivar volatile compounds detected by GC-MS and PTR-MS", Food Research International: Elsevier, 2013.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996913000975
Abstract
Multiclass sample classification and marker selection are cutting-edge problems in metabolomics. In the present study we address the classification of 14 raspberry cultivars having different levels of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) susceptibility. We characterized raspberry cultivars by two headspace analysis methods, namely solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME/GC–MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Given the high number of classes, advanced data mining methods are necessary. Random Forest (RF), Penalized Discriminant Analysis (PDA), Discriminant Partial Least Squares (dPLS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been employed for cultivar classification and Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) has been used to perform feature selection. In particular the most important GC–MS and PTR-MS variables related to gray mold susceptibility of the selected raspberry cultivars have been investigated. Moving from GC–MS profiling to the more rapid and less invasive PTR-MS fingerprinting leads to a cultivar characterization which is still related to the corresponding Botrytis susceptibility level and therefore marker identification is still possible.
[1594] Schuhfried, E., T. D. Märk, and F. Biasioli, "Primary Ion Depletion Kinetics (PIDK) Studies as a New Tool for Investigating Chemical Ionization Fragmentation Reactions with PTR-MS.", PLoS One, vol. 8, pp. e66925, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066925
Abstract
<p>We report on a new approach for studying fragmentation channels in Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), which we name primary ion depletion kinetics (PIDK). PTR-MS is a chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CIMS) technique deploying hydronium ions for the chemical ionization. Induced by extremely high concentrations of analyte M, depletion of the primary ions in the drift tube occurs. This is observed as quasi zero concentration of the primary ion H3O(+), and constant MH(+). Under these non-standard conditions, we find an overall changed fragmentation. We offer two explanations. Either the changed fragmentation pattern is the result of secondary proton transfer reactions. Or, alternatively, the fast depletion of H3O(+) leads to reduced heating of H3O(+) in the drift field, and consequently changed fragmentation following protonation of the analyte M. In any case, we use the observed changes in fragmentation as a successful new approach to fragmentation studies, and term it primary ion depletion kinetics, PIDK. PIDK easily yields an abundance of continuous data points with little deviation, because they are obtained in one experimental run, even for low abundant fragments. This is an advantage over traditional internal kinetic energy variation studies (electric field per number density (E/N) variation studies). Also, some interpretation on the underlying fragmentation reaction mechanisms can be gleamed. We measure low occurring fragmentation (&lt;2% of MH(+)) of the compounds dimethyl sulfide, DMS, a compound that reportedly does not fragment, diethyl sulfide DES, and dipropyl sulfide DPS. And we confirm and complement the results with traditional E/N studies. Summing up, the new approach of primary ion depletion kinetics allows for the identification of dehydrogenation [MH(+) -H2] and adduct formation (RMH(+)) as low abundant fragmentation channels in monosulfides.</p>
[Papurello2013] Papurello, D., A. Lanzini, E. Schufried, M. Santarelli, S. Silvestri, and F. Biasioli, "Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a rapid online tool for biogas VOCs monitoring in support of the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)", CONFERENCE SERIES, pp. 144, 2013.
Link: http://www.ionicon.com/sites/default/files/uploads/doc/contributions_ptr_ms_Conference_6.pdf
[Cappellin2013] Cappellin, L., F. Loreto, E. Aprea, A. Romano, J. Sánchez { Del Pulgar}, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science.", Sensors (Basel), vol. 13, no. 9: Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, San Michele all'Adige 38010, Italy. francesco.loreto@cnr.it., pp. 11923–11955, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s130911923
Abstract
Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry) in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community.
[Soukoulis2013] Soukoulis, C., L. Cappellin, E. Aprea, F. Costa, R. Viola, TD.. Märk, F. Gasperi, and F. Biasioli, "PTR-ToF-MS, A Novel, Rapid, High Sensitivity and Non-Invasive Tool to Monitor Volatile Compound Release During Fruit Post-Harvest Storage: The Case Study of Apple Ripening", Food and Bioprocess Technology, vol. 6, no. 10: Springer US, pp. 2831-2843, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0930-6
Abstract
In the present study, the potential of PTR-ToF-MS for addressing fundamental and technical post-harvest issues was tested on the non-destructive and rapid monitoring of volatile compound evolution in three apple cultivars (‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Gold Rush’) during 25 days of post-harvest shelf life ripening. There were more than 800 peaks in the PTR-ToF-MS spectra of apple headspace and many of them were associated with relevant compounds. Besides the ion produced upon proton transfer, we used the ion at mass 28.031 (C2H 4 +) produced by charge transfer from residual O 2 + as a monitor for ethylene concentration. ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were characterised by higher ethylene emission rates than ‘Gold Rush’ and ‘Braeburn’, and quantitative comparison has been supported by two segment piecewise linear model fitting. Ester evolution during post-harvest ripening is strongly dependent on endogenous ethylene concentration levels. For ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Braeburn’, sesquiterpenes (alpha-farnesene) exhibited a fast response to ethylene emission followed by a rapid decline after the endogenous ethylene maximum peak. Carbonyl compounds displayed a different time evolution as compared to esters and terpenes and did not show any evident relationship with ethylene. Methanol and ethanol concentrations during the entire storage period did not change significantly. We show how multivariate analysis can efficiently handle the large datasets produced by PTR-ToF-MS and that the outcomes obtained are in agreement with the literature. The different volatile compounds could be simultaneously monitored with high time resolution, providing advantages over the more established techniques for the investigation of VOC dynamics in fruit post-harvest storage trials.
[Costa2013] Costa, F., L. Cappellin, E. Zini, A. Patocchi, M. Kellerhals, M. Komjanc, C. Gessler, and F. Biasioli, "QTL validation and stability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in apple.", Plant Sci, vol. 211: n Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy. Electronic address: fabrizio.costa@fmach.it., pp. 1–7, Oct, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.05.018
Abstract
The aroma trait in apple is a key factor for fruit quality strongly affecting the consumer appreciation, and its detection and analysis is often an extremely laborious and time consuming procedure. Molecular markers associated to this trait can to date represent a valuable selection tool to overcome these limitations. QTL mapping is the first step in the process of targeting valuable molecular markers to be employed in marker-assisted breeding programmes (MAB). However, a validation step is usually required before a newly identified molecular marker can be implemented in marker-assisted selection. In this work the position of a set of QTLs associated to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was confirmed and validated in three different environments in Switzerland, namely Wädenswil, Conthey and Cadenazzo, where the progeny 'Fiesta×Discovery' was replicated. For both QTL identification and validation, the phenotypic data were represented by VOCs produced by mature apple fruit and assessed with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) instrument. The QTL-VOC combined analysis performed among these three locations validated the presence of important QTLs in three specific genomic regions, two located in the linkage group 2 and one in linkage group 15, respectively, for compounds related to esters (m/z 43, 61 and 131) and to the hormone ethylene (m/z 28). The QTL set presented here confirmed that in apple some compounds are highly genetically regulated and stable across environments.
[Morisco2013] Morisco, F., E. Aprea, V. Lembo, V. Fogliano, P. Vitaglione, G. Mazzone, L. Cappellin, F. Gasperi, S. Masone, G. Domenico { De Palma}, et al., "Rapid "breath-print" of liver cirrhosis by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A pilot study.", PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 4: Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy. filomena.morisco@unina.it, pp. e59658, 2013.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059658
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to test the potential of Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and the assessment of disease severity by direct analysis of exhaled breath. Twenty-six volunteers have been enrolled in this study: 12 patients (M/F 8/4, mean age 70.5 years, min-max 42-80 years) with liver cirrhosis of different etiologies and at different severity of disease and 14 healthy subjects (M/F 5/9, mean age 52.3 years, min-max 35-77 years). Real time breath analysis was performed on fasting subjects using a buffered end-tidal on-line sampler directly coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS. Twelve volatile organic compounds (VOCs) resulted significantly differently in cirrhotic patients (CP) compared to healthy controls (CTRL): four ketones (2-butanone, 2- or 3- pentanone, C8-ketone, C9-ketone), two terpenes (monoterpene, monoterpene related), four sulphur or nitrogen compounds (sulfoxide-compound, S-compound, NS-compound, N-compound) and two alcohols (heptadienol, methanol). Seven VOCs (2-butanone, C8-ketone, a monoterpene, 2,4-heptadienol and three compounds containing N, S or NS) resulted significantly differently in compensate cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh A; CP-A) and decompensated cirrhotic subjects (Child-Pugh B+C; CP-B+C). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed considering three contrast groups: CP vs CTRL, CP-A vs CTRL and CP-A vs CP-B+C. In these comparisons monoterpene and N-compound showed the best diagnostic performance.Breath analysis by PTR-ToF-MS was able to distinguish cirrhotic patients from healthy subjects and to discriminate those with well compensated liver disease from those at more advanced severity stage. A breath-print of liver cirrhosis was assessed for the first time.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
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J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
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W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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