[Colomb2006] "Airborne measurements of trace organic species in the upper troposphere over Europe: the impact of deep convection",
, vol. 3, no. 4: CSIRO, pp. 244–259, 2006.
The volume mixing ratios of several organic trace gases and ozone (O3) were measured in the upper troposphere over Europe during the UTOPIHAN-ACT aircraft campaign in July 2003. The organic trace gases included alkanes, isoprene, aromatics, iodomethane, and trichloroethylene, oxygenates such as acetone, methanol, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and longer-lived tracer species such as chlorofluorocarbons and halochloroflurocarbons. The aim of the UTOPIHAN-ACT project was to study the chemical impact of deep convection on the continental upper troposphere. A Lear Jet aircraft, based in Germany, was flown at heights between 6 and 13 km in the region 59°N–42°N to 7°W–13°E during July 2003. Overall, the convectively influenced measurements presented here show a weaker variability lifetime dependence of trace gases than similar measurements collected over the Mediterranean region under more stable high-pressure conditions. Several cases of convective outflow are identified by the elevated mixing ratios of organic species relative to quiescent background conditions, with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences detectable in the upper troposphere. Enhancement at higher altitudes, notably of species with relatively short chemical lifetimes such as benzene, toluene, and even isoprene indicates deep convection over short timescales during summertime. The impact of deep convection on the local upper tropospheric formaldehyde and HOx budgets is assessed.
 "Anthropogenic sources of VOC in a football stadium: Assessing Human Emissions in the Atmosphere",
<p>Measurements of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aerosol composition, carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3) were made inside Coface Arena in Mainz, Germany (49°59′3″N, 8°13′27″E) during a football match on April 20 2012. The VOC measurements were performed with a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Observed VOCs could be classified into several distinct source categories including (1) human respiration/breath, (2) ozonolysis of skin oils, and (3) cigarette smoke/combustion. In this work, we present a detailed discussion on the scale and potential impacts of VOCs emitted as a result of these sources and their contributions on local and larger scales. Human emissions of VOCs have a negligible contribution to the global atmospheric budget (∼1% or less) for all those quantified in this study. However, fluxes as high as 0.02 g m−2 h−1 and 2 × 10−4 g m−2 h−1, for ethanol and acetone respectively are observed, suggesting the potential for significant impact on local air chemistry and perhaps regional scales. This study suggests that even in outdoor environments, situations exist where VOCs emitted as a result of human presence and activity are an important component of local air chemistry.</p>