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Scientific Articles - PTR-MS Bibliography

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Found 8 results
Title [ Year(Asc)]
Filters: Author is Ruuskanen, TM  [Clear All Filters]
2011
[Bamberger2011] Bamberger, I., L. Hörtnagl, TM. Ruuskanen, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Müller, M. Graus, T. Karl, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Hansel, "Deposition fluxes of terpenes over grassland", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), vol. 116, no. D14: Wiley Online Library, 2011.
Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010JD015457/full
Abstract
Eddy covariance flux measurements were carried out for two subsequent vegetation periods above a temperate mountain grassland in an alpine valley using a proton-transfer-reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a PTR time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF). In 2008 and during the first half of the vegetation period 2009 the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for the sum of monoterpenes (MTs) were typically well below 1 ppbv and neither MT emission nor deposition was observed. After a hailstorm in July 2009 an order of magnitude higher amount of terpenes was transported to the site from nearby coniferous forests causing elevated VMRs. As a consequence, deposition fluxes of terpenes to the grassland, which continued over a time period of several weeks without significant reemission, were observed. For days without precipitation the deposition occurred at velocities close to the aerodynamic limit. In addition to monoterpene uptake, deposition fluxes of the sum of sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and the sum of oxygenated terpenes (OTs) were detected. Considering an entire growing season for the grassland (i.e., 1 April to 1 November 2009), the cumulative carbon deposition of monoterpenes reached 276 mg C m−2. This is comparable to the net carbon emission of methanol (329 mg C m−2), which is the dominant nonmethane volatile organic compound (VOC) emitted from this site, during the same time period. It is suggested that deposition of monoterpenes to terrestrial ecosystems could play a more significant role in the reactive carbon budget than previously assumed.
[Ruuskanen2011] Ruuskanen, TM., M. Müller, R. Schnitzhofer, T. Karl, M. Graus, I. Bamberger, L. Hoertnagl, F. Brilli, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Hansel, "Eddy covariance VOC emission and deposition fluxes above grassland using PTR-TOF", Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol. 11, pp. 611–625, 2011.
Link: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/611/2011/acp-11-611-2011.html
Abstract
Eddy covariance (EC) is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5–20 Hz). For volatile organic compounds (VOC) soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF) for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+ – water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes.
2010
[Bamberger2010] Bamberger, I., L. Hörtnagl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, TM. Ruuskanen, M. Müller, J. Dunkl, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Hansel, "BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland", Biogeosciences, vol. 7, no. 5: Copernicus GmbH, pp. 1413–1424, 2010.
Link: http://www.biogeosciences.net/7/1413/2010/bg-7-1413-2010.pdf
[Mueller2010] Müller, M., M. Graus, TM. Ruuskanen, R. Schnitzhofer, I. Bamberger, L. Kaser, T. Titzmann, L. Hoertnagl, G. Wohlfahrt, T. Karl, et al., "First eddy covariance flux measurements by PTR-TOF", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 3, pp. 387–395, 2010.
Link: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMT.....3..387M
Abstract
We have developed a High-Temperature Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (HT-PTR-MS) in which both the ion source and the ion drift tube can be continuously operated at temperatures up to 250 °C. The instrument was characterized in a high E/N-mode (130 Td) and in a low E/N-mode (87 Td) at an operating temperature of 200 °C. Instrumental sensitivities and 2σ-detection limits were on the order of 50–110 cps/ppb and 100 ppt (1 s signal integration time), respectively. The HT-PTR-MS is primarily intended for measuring "sticky" or semi-volatile trace gases. Alternatively, it may be coupled to a particle collection/thermal desorption apparatus to measure particle-bound organics in near real-time. In view of these applications, we have measured instrumental response times for a series of reference compounds. 1/e2-response times for dimethyl sulfoxide, ammonia and monoethanolamine were in the sub-second to second regime. 1/e2-response times for levoglucosan, oxalic acid and cis-pinonic acid ranged from 8 to 370 s.
[Sinha2010] Sinha, V., J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, TM. Ruuskanen, MK. Kajos, J. Patokoski, H. Hellen, H. Hakola, D. Mogensen, M. Boy, et al., "OH reactivity measurements within a boreal forest: evidence for unknown reactive emissions", Environmental science & technology, vol. 44, no. 17: ACS Publications, pp. 6614–6620, 2010.
Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es101780b
Abstract
Boreal forests emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which react with the hydroxyl radical (OH) to influence regional ozone levels and form secondary organic aerosol. Using OH reactivity measurements within a boreal forest in Finland, we investigated the budget of reactive VOCs. OH reactivity was measured using the comparative reactivity method, whereas 30 individual VOCs were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, thermal-desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, in August 2008. The measured OH reactivity ranged from below detection limit (3.5 s−1), to 60 s−1 in a single pollution event. The average OH reactivity was 9 s−1 and no diel variation was observed in the profiles. The measured OH sinks (30 species) accounted for only 50% of the total measured OH reactivity, implying unknown reactive VOCs within the forest. The five highest measured OH sinks were: monoterpenes (1 s−1), CO (0.7 s−1), isoprene (0.5 s−1), propanal and acetone (0.3 s−1), and methane (0.3 s−1). We suggest that models be constrained by direct OH reactivity measurements to accurately assess the impact of boreal forest emissions on regional atmospheric chemistry and climate.
[Ruuskanen2010] Ruuskanen, TM., M. Müller, R. Schnitzhofer, T. Karl, M. Graus, I. Bamberger, L. Hoertnagl, F. Brilli, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Hansel, "VOC Emission and Deposition Eddy Covariance Fluxes above Grassland using PTR-TOF", AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, vol. 1, pp. 0219, 2010.
Link: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53C0219R
Abstract
Eddy covariance (EC) is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5-20 Hz). For volatile organic compounds (VOC) soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF) for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+ - water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes. The smallest reliable fluxes we determined were less than 0.1 nmol m-2 s-1, as in the case of sesquiterpene emissions from freshly cut grass. Terpenoids, including mono- and sesquiterpenes, were also deposited to the grassland before and after the harvesting. During cutting, total VOC emission fluxes up to 200 nmolC m-2 s-1 were measured. Methanol emissions accounted for half of the emissions of oxygenated VOCs and a third of the carbon of all measured VOC emissions during harvesting.
2009
[Ruuskanen2009] Ruuskanen, TM., R. Taipale, J. Rinne, MK. Kajos, H. Hakola, and M. Kulmala, "Quantitative long-term measurements of VOC concentrations by PTR-MS: annual cycle at a boreal forest site", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 9, no. 1: Copernicus GmbH, pp. 81–134, 2009.
Link: http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/9/81/2009/acpd-9-81-2009.pdf
2008
[Taipale2008] Taipale, R., TM. Ruuskanen, J. Rinne, MK. Kajos, H. Hakola, T. Pohja, and M. Kulmala, "Technical Note: Quantitative long-term measurements of VOC concentrations by PTR-MS–measurement, calibration, and volume mixing ratio calculation methods", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 8, no. 22: Copernicus GmbH, pp. 6681–6698, 2008.
Link: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/6681/2008/acp-8-6681-2008.html
Abstract
Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a technique for online measurements of atmospheric concentrations, or volume mixing ratios, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper gives a detailed description of our measurement, calibration, and volume mixing ratio calculation methods, which have been designed for long-term stand-alone field measurements by PTR-MS. The PTR-MS instrument has to be calibrated regularly with a gas standard to ensure the accuracy needed in atmospheric VOC measurements. We introduce a novel method for determining an instrument specific relative transmission curve using information obtained from a calibration. This curve enables consistent mixing ratio calculation for VOCs not present in a calibration gas standard. Our method proved to be practical, systematic, and sensitive enough to capture changes in the transmission over time. We also propose a new approach to considering the abundance of H3O+H2O ions in mixing ratio calculation. The approach takes into account the difference in the transmission efficiencies for H3O+ and H3O+H2O ions. To illustrate the functionality of our measurement, calibration, and calculation methods, we present a one-month period of ambient mixing ratio data measured in a boreal forest ecosystem at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. During the measurement period 27 March–26 April 2007, the hourly averages of the mixing ratios were 0.051–0.57 ppbv for formaldehyde, 0.19–3.1 ppbv for methanol, 0.038–0.39 ppbv for benzene, and 0.020–1.3 ppbv for monoterpenes. The detection limits for the hourly averages were 0.020, 0.060, 0.0036, and 0.0092 ppbv, respectively.

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Selected PTR-MS related Reviews

F. Biasioli, C. Yeretzian, F. Gasperi, T. D. Märk: PTR-MS monitoring of VOCs and BVOCs in food science and technology, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (7) (2011).
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J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, T. Karl, G. Eerdekens, C. van der Veen, R. Fall: Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Earth's Atmosphere using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 26 (2007), 223-257.
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W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR–MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 (1998), 347-375.
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Lists with PTR-MS relevant publications of the University of Innsbruck can be found here: Atmospheric and indoor air chemistry, IMR, Environmental Physics and Nano-Bio-Physics

 

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